The first information about Madagascar is derived from Arabian sources, especially in the middle of the 10th century, from El-Mesudi, who visited East Africa. The island has been populated by Indonesians and Africans since our age. In the twelfth century, the Arabs established a small town on the northwest coast. Over time, Islam spread to the island. The island of Gaskar was not known by the Europeans until it was discovered accidentally by a Portuguese in 1500. In 1643 the French established Dauphin Castle on the island, which was then divided into small kingdoms. The Sakalava Kingdoms, which were at the height of the eighteenth century, were replaced by Merina Kingdom at the end of the same century. This kingdom, by signing a friendship agreement with England, opened its door to the Europeans. Meanwhile, the French occupied Nassi Bey in 1841 and wanted to take the Beard in the forefront. France bombed the Sakalava coast, which did not accept its patronage. In 1885, under the authority of a French executive who was the president of his foreign affairs, a kind of state protection was established. In 1896, the French parliament turned Malagasy into a colony. After the Second World War, the Madagasians took up a tough struggle for independence. In 1947, the revolution broke out, and after a brief intervention, the rebellion was suppressed. Between 60,000 and 90,000 people were killed or wounded. The island was then managed directly from Paris. In 1958, Madagascar became a republic in the French League. On June 26, 1960, he gained full independence. After an independence of 10 years, there are still 50,000 French soldiers in the country. Two-thirds of the foreign investments were in the hands of French import-export companies, three-quarters of exports, and more than half of the commercial value plants. In the south, which was dry and poor, in the early 1972, 100,000 students boycotted the end of foreign economic domination. The boycott was digested but, in May 1972, when the city was in a new state of confusion; the government, the military commander left. A temporary government was established between 1972-1975. On 30 December 1975 a second republic was declared. The name of the new state was the Democratic Republic of Madagascar. The new republic followed a broad nationalization policy. French troops were removed. A state of emergency was declared in July because of the internal turmoil that began in early 1991, and after a while the government established by the socialists resigned. After a while, the Council and the High Revolution Council were annulled and Zafy was headed by the High Government Organization. The first round of presidential elections was held on 25 November 1992. The second round was postponed to 1993 due to the election of cheating.

Physical Structure

Madagascar, the fourth largest island in the world, is 1570 km long from north to south with a maximum width of 575 kilometers. The coast line, which is more than about 4800 km, and the change of its geographical structure with the mountain chain extending along its entire length is remarkable. The island is divided into three natural areas of the geography: the mountainous inner region, the east coast and the west coast.

The mountainous inner region, named as the high plateaus, has an altitude of 900 to 1500 m above sea level and contains three mountain ranges with a height of more than 1830 m. The highest peak is Maromokotro (2876 m), on the northern Tsratanna mountain range. The surfaces of the plateaus have different characteristics. In all directions there are deep valleys and deep valleys. In the high mountains of the mountainous region, there are large low pressure areas and marshy plains.

The east coast, which has an average of 50 km, is located between the high plateaus and the Indian Ocean. It is characterized by erosion hills and marshes. The coastline, which contains the Antongil Bay as a single indentation, is parallel to the main axis of the mountains. The rivers pouring from this shore into the Indian Ocean are short but suitable for short distances.

The western coast, which has reached a width of 190 km in some places, has a more variable, more indented, protruding appearance compared to the east coast with its plains depressions and plateaus. This is the most important geographical feature of Madagascar. The rivers poured into the Mozambique Channel are longer and have large sections.


Climate changes on the island depend on altitude differences rather than latitude differences. The climate is generally hot and humid. The mountainous interior is mild.

There are two seasons in Madagascar: hot (rainy) season and cold (dry) season. It is the period of hot season, daily rains and storms. This season, high plateaus, from the end of November until the end of April continues. The longer the east coast, the shorter the west coast. It takes only two months in the south (range and quarry). The cold season continues from April to November. During this season, the east coast and north west are rainy and high plateaus are humid. The west coast is arid, the southern coast is even more dry. Annual average annual precipitation varies by region. The rainfall on the coast of Antongil, with an area of ??3700 mm, is 2100 millimeters on the northwest coast, 940 millimeters in the west and 355 kilometers in the southwest. This amount varies between 1200-1325 mm in the inner plateau. The average annual temperature is 21 ° C-27 ° C on the coast and 13 ° -19 ° C on the inner plateau. The coldest month is July.

Natural Resources

Once upon a time, the intersection forests covering Madagascar can be found only on the coastline and on the slopes of the central mountain range. Natural vegetation is destroyed by cutting or cutting to open the field. The most dense forests are located in the Ankaizina plateau, in the Tsratanna mountain range and in the Sahamalaza Bay in the northwest. Forests include dark red and fragrant trees and precious trees such as iron trees. In the south, there are frequently spiny shrubs (giant herbs that are involved in cactus and scrub trees). Island animals have a unique feature. Except for the significant crocodiles, there are no large animals such as elephants, monkeys or lions. However, only animals found in Madagascar and resembling monkeys are abundant. Mammals, bats, wild boars, and other mammals are also found. Madagascar contains chrome, mica, graphite and secondary gemstones as underground riches. In 1980, large oil reserves were found. Oil is not currently available.

Population and Social Life

The majority of the people of Madagascar (84%) with a population of 12,804,000 live in rural areas and live in farming. Antananarivo, which has a population of approximately 663,000 and is the only major city in the region, is in the high plateau area. Population growth rate is around 2.6%.

Before and after the French occupation, ethnic groups, which were tightly tied to each other for trade, internal migration and administrative structure, were dispersed. The Merina tribe, which is the most populated and influential group of the people of Madagascar, lives in the middle of the mountainous areas. There are also ethnic groups such as Bertsileo, Sakalava, Mahafaly, Antaimoro and Antaisaka. There are also European, Chinese and Indian minorities in Madagascar. The official language is Madagascar and French. Until the twentieth century, education remained in the hands of missionaries. Today, approximately 50% of the people are literate. Higher education is carried out at Madagascar University and scientific research institutes. About one third of the population of Madagascar is a Christian. Christianity was spread in the country by the missionaries in the nineteenth century. There are several hundred thousand Muslims in Madagascar, especially in the northwest. Most of the people in the countryside continue their old religions.

Political Life

In the Democratic Republic of Madagascar announced on 30 December 1975, the President is elected for seven years. The President presides over the 12-member Revolutionary Council. The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President. There is only one party in the country where the National People’s Assembly has been in office for six years. Madagascar is a member of the United Nations and the African Union.


Until recently, the economy of Madagascar was under the control of French economic institutions. Today, with an accelerated nationalization policy, the government has nationalized 35% of the industry, 78% of exports, 60% of imports, and banking and insurance.

In the economy, priority is given to agriculture where more than 80% of the population is engaged. Agricultural products such as tobacco, vanilla, tea, cloves, peppers and coffee grown in the country are exported. Rice, the main foodstuff of the people, is grown, but for the people of the city, more than 100,000 tons of rice is imported annually. 10 million cattle raised in Madagascar allow the country to export frozen meat. Agricultural products provide 30% of export revenues. Chrome, mica, graphite and second-order precious stones are exported. Madagascar is expected to become an oil exporting country thanks to the large oil reserves discovered in recent years. Although most of the finished goods are imported, the trade balance shifts in favor of the country due to a strict import policy. Inflation is around 8%.

The transportation area is a major obstacle to social and economic development. The length and maintenance of roads are insufficient. Colonial era railways have not been developed. In response to these deficiencies, airway transportation is being developed. Ivanto airport near the city center is the only international airport in the country.