Tanzania

Historical

In the eighth century the Arabs came to Tanzania and spread Islam. Archaeological studies confirm Arabian cities on the coast in the 10th century. In 1499, Vasco de Gama discovered Zengibar while traveling to India. In the next two centuries, the Portuguese Empire kept most of East Africa’s commercial cities under control. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Arab Sultanate of Oman captured the shores of Pemba and Kilwa. In 1840, the ruler of Oman, Sayyid Said ibni Sultan, moved his palace to Zengibar. In the vast majority of the nineteenth century, Zengibar was a strong Sultans holding the ivory and slave trade in the country.

In 1885, Tanganyika came under the rule of Germany. In 1890, Britain took Zengibar under her protection. Tanganyika remained part of German East Africa until the end of the First World War. In 1919 the Treaty of Versailles was divided into German East Africa. The Tanganyika League of Nations was a mandate led by Britain. From 1946 onwards, it became a country ruled by the United Kingdom under the auspices of the United Nations.

The independence movements in Tanganika began in 1954 with the establishment of the Tangshan African National Union Party. On December 9, 1961, Tangany won his independence, and a year later, he announced his transfer to the republic. On December 10, 1963, Britain granted independence to Zengibar. A month later, the Arab Sultanate was overthrown and the republic was declared. On April 26, 1964, the Republic of Tanganyika in East Africa and the Zengibar Island Republic near the coast of Tanganyika merged and became the Republic of Tanzania. In 1977, Tanganyika and Zengibar’s governing parties merged.

In 1980, general elections were held. President Nejerere resigned from his post in 1985 at his own request. Ali Hassan Mwinyi, who succeeded in his place and still is the President, had a policy of opening up to the West economically (1994 January).

Physical Structure

Tanganyika is divided into three different regions: a central high plateau divided by a large valley with a coastal zone, a low plateau region in the east and a geological fault (collapse). The average height of Tanganika from sea level is 900 m. There are some high mountainous lands in the country, primarily at the border. Kilimanjaro Mountain in the north, which reaches an altitude of 5894 m, is the highest point in Africa. There are three large lakes in the country: Malawi, Tanganyika and Victoria lakes.

Zengibar and Pemba are mainly coral islands, located in the Indian Ocean, about 40 km far from the coast of Tanganyika.

Climate

A tropical climate prevails in Tanzania. But the temperature is muted on the islands by regular sea breezes. The coast of Tanganika gets plenty of rainfall. The average annual precipitation in the northern part of the coast is 1500 mm3. The coastal zone is under the influence of monsoon winds blowing in the southwest direction from May to March, from May to October. Although there are two rainy seasons in the interior, the precipitation is not abundant, except for the mountainous regions with an annual rainfall of 2500 mm3, such as Tukuyu in the south. Drought is common in most parts of the central plateau where rainfall is below 760 mm3.

Natural Resources

Various climatic zones allow the growing of a wide variety of plants in the country. On the coast there are mangrove plants and palm trees, bush and boabap trees in the central plateau and the Alpine mountains on Kilimanjaro Mountain. As in other East African countries, Tanganyika has abundant wild animals. Serengeti Plains in the northwestern part of the country are among the most wild animals in Africa. The main animals in the country are gazelles, zebra, cattle, elephant, ape and rhino. The underground wealth of the country is diamond, gold, mineral salt, tin and mica.

Population and Social Life

10% of the people of Tanzania, with a population of 25,900,000, live in cities. The most important city of the country is the city Darüsselam with a population of 769.445. The majority of the population consists of Africans known as Bantu. There are also a small number of Arab, Indian, Pakistani and European in the country.

The majority of Tanzanians live in tribes. The most crowded tribe is Sukuma, near Lake Victoria. Other major tribal groups are Nyamwezi, Haya, Makonde, Ha, Chagga, Gogo, Nyakyusa, Hehe and Masai. The vast majority of the population speaks the language of Swahili, the official language of English.

33% of the country’s population is Muslim, 44% is Christian and the rest is pagan. Islam has come to the shores of Zengibar and Tanganika centuries ago. It was spread in the inner nineteenth century. Christianity was brought to Tanzania by missionaries since 1840.

In Tanzania, 60% of the people are literate. At the university in Dar es Salaam, the University of East Africa and high technical schools in the University of Uganda. The country still benefits from secondary teachers in secondary education and at the university.

Political Life

In Tanzania, the country’s political life is dominated by a single party. The head of state and government is nominated by the party conference and elected by the people. Only one candidate is nominated for this office. Two or more candidates may be nominated for others. There are two co-chairmen. The first of these is the president of Zengibar. Cabinet ministers are elected from the National Assembly. Tanzania is divided into 24 administrative regions, 20 of which are located in Tanganika, 3 in Zengibar and 1 in Pempa. There are many foreign officials in the administrative structure of the country. Most of them have technical, health and civil aviation duties. Tanzania is a member of the United Nations, the African Union and the Commonwealth.

Economy

The Tanzanian economy is mainly based on agriculture. The main food crops that grow in the central plateau are wheat, cassava, cassava and corn. Rice is grown on the shore and in Zengibar. The main trade plants are sisal hemp, cotton, coffee, tea and tobacco. Zengibar is the main source of cloves in the world.

There are few industrial products in the country. manufacturing is limited to textiles, soap, shoes, razor blades, wheels, wheat products and powdered coffee. There is an oil refinery in the country.

The production and trade, which were previously conducted mostly by Europeans and Asians, are increasingly under government control. Most marketing and production activities are now handled by government bodies. Tanzania makes most of its foreign trade with Britain, West Germany and Japan. Coffee, sisal hemp, cotton, cloves, animal skins, tea and wax, as well as a few minerals such as diamonds and gold exports. The main imported goods are machinery, fuels, motor vehicles and chemical products.

In Tanzania, the central railway runs from Dar Es Salaam to the northwestern Kigoma Uji on the edge of Lake Tanganika. One arm goes to Mwanza on the edge of Lake Victoria. The other main railway line runs from Tanga Port to Arusha in the northwest and connects with the Tanganyika central railway line and other railways in Kenya. The major ports are Dar es Salaam, Mtwara and Tanga. Highways are in the form of ring roads connecting most locations to the main railway line. Airlines provide the necessary transportation within the country. There are international airports in Dar es Salaam and Kilimanjaro.

 

Uganda

Historical

Today’s Ugandans are descendants of the two groups of migrants: As the first group, those coming to the south around the 15th century formed the current Bantu peoples of the country; then the second group from the Nile region and Sudan formed the tribes in the north and east. In Uganda, such as Bunyoro, Ankole, Buganda and Toro were established. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the most powerful state was the Bunyoro Kingdom. In the eighteenth century, Buganda took the upper hand in the struggle against Bunyoro to dominate the region. In the 1840s, Arab merchants came to the country, causing some Ugandans to become Muslims. In the 1884-85 Berlin Conference, Europe’s colonialist states agreed on a plan to share Africa. In the late 1880s, he and East Germany exchanged treaties between Britain and Germany. Kenya and Uganda remained to England, Tanganyika. Since 1894, Uganda has come under the auspices of Britain.

On October 9, 1962, Uganda became independent. The thirty-sixth President of the Republic of Uganda passed the Second Mutesa. Afterwards, Dr. In the time of Milton Obote, a few Jewish minorities, 90,000 British and British brought from India, 50,000 Hindu captured all the military, cultural and economic opportunities of Uganda. In 1971, the Army of Uganda They overthrew Milton Obote and brought Idi Amin, the beloved believer, into the head of state. The Jews of Amen expelled the British and Hindus from the country (see Idi Amin). In time, those who passed into Islam quickly multiplied. This situation made some forces extremely anxious. 26 assassinations to kill Idi Amin. Without these results, the Christian Tanzanian occupied Uganda. Returning from exile, Christian plays with political games in December 1980 Milton Obote slaughtered about 100,000 Muslims, children, old people, women. Basilio Olara Okello, who took control of the coup in 1985, was soon overthrown by the National Resistance Movement under the administration of Yoweri Museveni. Museveni, who took the presidency, strengthened his power by neutralizing the dissident Guerrilla groups within three years after the coup. After 1980, the first general elections were held in 1989, and the National Resistance Council won the elections. The country is in social and economic turmoil (1994-February).

Physical Structure

A large part of Uganda is in the highlands. The height of the land from the sea level to the north and north-west is between 600 and 900 meters. The Lake Victoria area ranges from 1000 to 1500 meters. Many mountains are rising on the plateau and they dominate the eastern and western borders of the country. Ruwenzori Mountains with a height of more than 4800 meters are divided by Zaire boundary. The 4321-meter-high Volcanic Mountain Mountain lies along the Kenya border. The 4504-meter-high volcanic Virunga Mountain Range is shared with Zaire and Rwanda.

Approximately 16% of the surface area of ??Uganda (42,439 km2) is covered with water. The main lakes of the country are the lakes of Victoria, Albert, Edward, Kyoga and George. Lake Victoria is the main source of the Nile River.

Climate

Although Uganda is on the equator, the climate is mild due to the high altitude of the country. There is no extreme temperature anywhere in the country. In the south, the average annual temperature ranges between 13 ° C and 23 ° C and in the north between 18 ° C and 30 ° C. Most of Uganda receives at least 1000 mm of precipitation per year. In Uganda, erosion is more important than drought.

Natural Resources

There are many different types of plants in Uganda. The most common plant species is the sparse tree savanna covering the entire north of the country. Other different plant species are trees left from the old forests in the east of Lake Victoria and Lake Albert, arid steppes in the Karamoja region in the east, open savanna in the south and southwest, forests in the highlands and highlands in the highlands. In Uganda, wild animals can be found in many different genera. Chimpanzees, gorillas, elephants, gazelles, lions, hippopotamus, cattle and zebra are the main wild animals of the country. The important underground riches of the country are copper and cobalt.

Population and Social Life

The population of Uganda is 17,200,000, and only a very small percentage (8,1%) of them live in cities. Most of the population is gathered in the east near the Lake of Algon and the Rwanda border, near Lake Victor. The number of people per kilometer is 59. The only major city in the country is the capital, Kampala, with a population of 773,500.

Of the people of Uganda, 98% are of African descent. There are a small number of South Asian, Arab and European. Africans are divided into four main ethnic groups according to the languages ??they use: the Bantu languages, the languages ??of the Nile, the Nil-Hami languages ??and the Sudanese languages. Bantu constitutes 65% of the population and occupies the entire southwestern part of Uganda. The major Bantu groups are Ganda, Nicole, Toro, Nyoro, Soga, Gisu and Kiga. The Nile region is located in the northern inner part of Uganda. Lango, Acholi and Alur groups are the major ones. The Nile-Hami peoples are present in northeastern Uganda, of which the main groups Iteso and Karamojong form. Sudanese groups live in the northwestern corner of Uganda. The largest of these groups is Lugbara.

In Uganda, many different tribal languages ??are spoken. Although not perfect, the tribes in the same language family can communicate with each other. The agreement between the four main groups is usually provided through the official language, English.

62% of Uganda’s people are Christian and the remaining 6% are Muslims. Approximately half of primary school-age children attend school, and 25% of the public are literate. There is a university, higher teacher schools, a technical high school and a high school of commerce in the country.

Political Life

Uganda is a Republic-managed country, divided into 10 states and 34 accidents. The 1967 Constitution was suspended due to military coups. The country is a member of the United Nations, the African Union and the Commonwealth of Nations.

Economy

The economy of Uganda is based on agriculture. The main crops grown are bananas, cassava, broom, corn, peanuts, sesame and beans. The main trade plants are coffee and cotton, accounting for 80% of the country’s exports. Tea and tobacco are also grown for export purposes.

Livestock breeding is developing in Uganda, and cattle, goats and sheep are grown in the northeast and southwest of the country. Fishing in the large lakes and reservoirs of the country is advanced.

Food, cement, building materials and textiles are the developed industries of the country. Tourism is gradually developing.

The length of the Uganda highway is approximately 28,332 km, of which 2240 km is asphalt. The railway running between Kampala and Mombasa, Kenya, was extended to Kasese in the west and from Tororo, on the border with Kenya, to Pakwach near Albert Nile. There are international airports in Entebbe near Kompala.

 

Italy

Historical

There is little information about people living in ancient Italy. B.C. There were four distinct civilizations in Italy in the 500s. The Celts in the north, the Etruscans in the central region, the many tribes, including the Romans in the inner and mountain regions, and the Greek minorities in the regions from Naples to Sicily. The foundation date of the Roman Republic was traditionally BC. 595 accepted. This is the year when the last Roman king was exiled. Later, Rome, which benefited from the conflicts among the tribes, ensured its independence.

B.C. In 49, Caesar gave the Gauls full citizenship. The Roman Empire gradually developed. It dominated the whole peninsula in the third century. The imperial center, which was later subjected to attacks by barbarians in the same century, moved from Rome to Milan. During the time of Costantinos, the center was taken to Istanbul.

In the hands of Western Roman Empire which lost Gaul and other provinces, Italy remained alone. When the Eastern Roman Emperor Zenon appointed the Ostrogoths to lead Italy, the Ostrogoths dominated Italy at the end of four years of wars, and the Ostrogoth king became the absolute king of Italy. After this period, the Papal power developed. In 451, Northern Italy was invaded by the Huns of Europe. Rome survived the invasion on the request of the Pope, and until the end of the 6th century political domination remained in the hands of the Papacy.

In 774, Naples, Gueta and Amalfi were subjected to the influx of Muslims. Muslims conquered Sicily. Upon the death of Charlemagne, there were feudal and political fragmentation. Otto (938-1002), who wanted to re-establish the Roman Empire, moved the capital back to Rome. The papal-imperial struggle began again. The cities of northern and central Italy, which benefited from the war between the Pope and the emperors, declared their independence.

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, cities such as Genoa, Florence, Venice and Milan came to dominate the Italian economy after they emerged as small but powerful states. The influence of the Renaissance, which began in Europe at the beginning of the fifteenth century, was seen in Italy. In the middle of this century, Ottoman raids began on the lands of Italy and the Ottomans took Otranto in 1480.

Political slimming and disintegration in Italy between 1494-1559 led to wars. Italy became the battlefield of the French and Austrian dynasty, which wanted to take over Europe. This war also affected Italy to a great extent.

After the 17th century, a regression period began in Italy. The Kingdom of Naples and Sicily are weakened. In 1796, the French led by Napoleon invaded Italy. French domination lasted a short period of 20 years. During this period, the country merged under the same management. For a short time, the Kingdom of Italy was established in the north. At the Vienna congress of 1815, when the old order was restored, the ideas of a unified Italy were in sight. In 1866, when Venice joined Rome in 1870, Italy eventually became a Kingdom. However, disagreements had not been completely resolved, the North-South and inter-regional disputes and strife continued.

In 1882, along with Austria-Hungary and Germany, the three entered the First World War together with the Alliance and the Allies in 1915. After long struggles, Italy gained the mandate on the territory of Austria, was not satisfied with the agreements made after the war. In Italy, where the war was politically and economically very bad, Dictator Mussolini was forcibly established in 1922. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935-1936. He entered into an alliance with Nazi Germany. Until 1943, Mussolini’s dictatorship was a period of repression and armament.

Italy entered the Second World War in 1940. The Italians were defeated on all fronts. Then they declared war on Germany. Italy was occupied by the Nazis. After the handing over of the Nazis (1945), Italy was heavily damaged by the war.

With a referendum in 1946, the monarchy was abolished. A new Democratic Republic was established. In 1949, Italy became a member of NATO in 1958. The Christian Democratic Party and the Italian Socialist Party, which had ruled Italy for nearly 30 years with various coalitions, suffered a massive loss of votes in the 1992 elections. In May of the same year, parliamentary Oscar Lugi Scoifaro was elected as president by resigning. A new coalition government was then established.

Physical Structure

Located in southern Europe, in the north-west of France, Switzerland and Austria in the north, Yugoslavia in the northeast, Adriatic Sea in the east, Italy in the Tirejen west of the west, the peninsula is in the form of a boot. Sardinia, Sicily, Elba and many small islands in the Mediterranean are connected to Italy. Northern Italy consists of the large alluvial plain of the Po Valley, which is connected to the Alpine Mountains in the north. The Montblanca Hill on the French-Italian border of the Great Alps, one of the highest mountains of Italy, is 4810 m high. The highest peak in Italy is Grand Parodiso and is 4061 meters. The extension of the appennines from north to south is 1125 km. The average height of these mountains is 1200 m. Central Appenins are separated from the sea on the banks of the Adriatic Sea by the narrow hills strip. It is made up of limestone highlands, which are formerly high and barren, with collapsed basins and lakes. South Appenins extend along the shores of the Tyrrhenian Sea. There is a region consisting of hills and small plains with alluvium. These plains are the plains of Toscana, Umbria, Lazio and Campania from north to south.

In this region there are volcanic craters and crater lakes. The volcanoes in operation are located near Naples in the south. The Vesuvius is an active volcano. The Ponci volcano is famous in history. The human sculptures that are petrified with the lavas here are very important in terms of reflecting the life of the society on that day. The volcano Etna in Sicily is an active volcano in Sicily. Italy’s islands in the Mediterranean constitute 16% of the Italian territory.

The most important river is Po. 673 km long, this river rises from the Alps. Other rivers are Tiber and Arno. There are lakes famous for their beauties in the country. Of these, Maggiore, Cono and Garda are the most important.

climate

The Mediterranean climate prevails in Italy. Summer, where the Sahara air is settled, is dry, dry and sunny. The winter season of the Atlantic Ocean is warm, rainy and irregular. Northern Italy cannot benefit from the sea’s softening effect. The climate here is the land climate. Po Plain is cold and foggy in winter, and in summer, there are suffocating humid temperatures. The continuity of the rains towards the northern region increases. There is more rainfall in the spring. Towards the south, the climate gets warmer and the winter months are the most rainy months in the south. Winters are mild and summers are warm.

The average annual rainfall varies between 500 and 800 mm. The average temperature is 1 ° C in winter and 25-26 ° C in summer.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Italy does not have a rich vegetation. Because of the Mediterranean climate, plants can last for long periods of dry and hot summers. Forests cover 21% of the country’s territory. Forests mostly contain oak, acgürgen and chestnut trees. Uncooked soils are covered with drought-resistant coarse weeds and maquis. In low parts, there are forests covered with trees belonging to the species of the conifer. The underside of these forms deciduous trees.

Due to the fact that the people of Italy are very interested in hunting, the number of wild animals has decreased. There are wild animals such as mountain goats, wolves and deer living in the Alps today.

Mines: The country is poor in terms of mineral resources. The existing coal and iron deposits are not sufficient. Natural gas, oil and sulfur are extracted in Sicily. Antimony, prite, boron and largely mercury are obtained in Toscona. In the coastal mountains of Toscona, a significant amount of marble is extracted. There are fertile methane gas deposits in Po Plain.

Population and Social Life

The population of Italy is 57.158.000. In Italy, population growth has become an issue. Because the birth rate is very high. There is a great migration from Italy to foreign countries. 7 million people have migrated to foreign countries in half a century.

Italy is made up of eleven regions. All of these regions, even in cities, use separate dialects. They never agree with the people in one of these regions. According to linguists, there are 50 polishes in Italy. Florence is officially used. In schools, this language is taught and used.

Education: In Italy, basic education between 6 and 14 years of age is compulsory and free of charge. After this education, high school is five years. There are 288 universities in the country. Higher education is paid.

Religion: A large part of the population belongs to the Catholic sect of Christianity. There are very few Protestant and Jewish.

Sports: Sport is very advanced in Italy, football has become a national sport. 7342 sports clubs and 9750 teams from these clubs are participating in official matches. There are 205.430 players in these teams. Italians, football, athletics, boxing, fencing, riding have shown success in many sports, such as riding, have had a say in the world sports field.

Political Life

According to the 1948 Constitution, Italy is a democratic republic with two legislatures (the House of Representatives and the Senate), each of which is elected for five years. The House of Representatives has 630 members. The President of the Republic shall be elected by the Assembly for seven years. The country is divided into twenty regions. These regions are autonomous to some extent. There are also five main regions that have their own management. The established coalition governments have not been continuing for a long time and are frequently elected.

Economy

After the Second World War, it became one of the main industrial countries with a big economic development starting in 1950. After 1979, the economy saw declines. The basis for this was a 7.6% unemployed and 21.2% inflation rate. 48.6% of the workforce is employed in the industrial sector.

Agriculture: 18% of the working population is engaged in agriculture, 31% of their land is workable and 17% is agricultural. The main agricultural products are sugar beet, wheat, rice, vegetables, grapes and olive. Northern Italy, covering 37% of the production area, gives half of the total production. Those who live in the mountains provide their livelihood from the forest. The inhabitants of the large valleys grow grain, grapes and fruit. There are corn fields and mulberry in the high level in the Po Plain. Wheat is grown at the foot of appennines. Southern Italy agriculture is inefficient. Although the production area covers 63% of the treated land, it gives half of the total agricultural production. The agricultural areas are as follows: naked fields, fruit gardens, both fruit and grain-growing fields. Wheat and pods are grown in these fields.

Characteristics of Italian agriculture: Grain constitutes 22% of the agricultural production and 24% of the cultivation of trees. Grows in tobacco and linen as industrial plants. In many parts of Italy the soil is weak and water is scarce even though the planting is continuous. Italy grows wheat and corn in general. It is the biggest rice producer in Europe. It is the first in the world in olive oil production. In spite of all this, Italy cannot meet its needs in terms of nutrients.

Livestock: In Italy, livestock is considered to be developed according to soil width. In the country are fed cattle, goats, sheep. Cattle are fed in the high parts of the mountains. The dairy industry is highly developed. World famous cheese is obtained. The country’s animal protein and fat needs are met. In the low parts of the mountains are fed sheep in fallowlands.

Industry: 36% of the population is employed, while most of the industry and investments are concentrated in the north. Major industries are weaving (especially silk), chemical, machinery, motor vehicles, oil processing and food fields. The Fiat car industry has a worldwide reputation in the motor vehicle industry. It employs a large work force. The food industry is well developed in pasta and canned food. In the Italian industry, raw materials and energy resources are generally weak. This deficit is closed with imports. The distribution of natural gas, which has been recently removed, to industrial zones and the establishment of hydroelectric power plants in the Alps has closed the energy deficit to a great extent. Transport difficulties affect the industry negatively.

Trade: The foreign trade table reflects the trends of the Italian economy. Raw materials such as cotton, crude oil, wool, ferrous metals constitute nearly 50% of imports. 40-42% of the exports are composed of machinery, leveled petrochemical products, cotton woven fabrics and automobiles. So it is processed as raw material, processed and sold. Other goods exported by Italy are shoes, typewriters, olive oil and olive. Imported goods are primarily mines, wheat and oil. The Italian sea fleet is one of the largest fleets in the world. There is a close link between Italian trade and maritime transport. The deficit in the balance of Italian payments is closed through the tourism sector. Tourism sector is very developed. Italy, which has many touristic facilities, is rich in history and culture. Italy is an attractive country for tourists, with many developments and innovations throughout history. As a member of the EEC, most of its trade is in the countries that are members of the EEC, with the USA and Saudi Arabia.

Transportation: Italy also has 302.403 km highway. The length of the railways is 19,559 km, of which only 7395 is not electric. Italian Airlines travels all over the world. There are 21 international, 32 national and 75 club airports in the country.

The sea trade fleet consists of 2620 ships with a capacity of 11,867,300 gross tons. Major ports are Genoa, Venice, Trieste, Toranto Naples and La Spezia.

 

Portugal

Historical

In the early ages, the country occupied by the Iberian tribes (Lusitanians), BC. It became a province of the Romans in the 1st century. Then the Vandals, Suevler (a German tribe) were invaded by Visigoths from the 5th century to the 8th century. In 711, the country fell into the hands of Muslims. Andalusian Umayyads (756-1031), Teva 11.if-i Müluk (11th century) Islamic states were established and dominated the region. The region between the Douro and Minho rivers into the tenth century was called Terra Portucallis. Portucallis consists of a combination of Latin Portas (port) and Calle (castle).

Portugal became an independent kingdom in 1143. His borders widened with his battles against the Merinis. Towards the middle of the thirteenth century, the present borders of Portugal were completed. Portuguese sailors spread throughout the world in the 15th century. In the next century, they established a large colonial empire in Asia, Africa and South America, holding most of the trade between Europe and the East. In 1598, in a battle against the cities of Morocco, when Portugal suffered a heavy defeat, the empire suddenly collapsed. Spain benefited from the weakening of the country, Portugal in 1580 by adding to the territory, managed up to 1640.

Portugal became independent again in 1688 under the Lisbon Treaty. But Portugal lost its former glory, and an alliance agreement was signed with Britain in 1703 until the 20th century. In the 19th century, he had to fight against Napoleon because he was an ally with the British. While the country was at war with France, in 1811 the king and his family took refuge in Brazil. In this period the empire began to collapse. When Brazil declared its independence in 1822, Portugal lost its only source of great wealth.

The whole of the nineteenth century and early 20th century was a period of economic and political instability for Portugal. Violent partisan struggles, civil wars pushed the country into turmoil. The king was killed in 1908, two years later in 1910 was declared a republic. The republic period, which lasted for sixteen years, was quite unstable, during which forty-eight governments were formed and at least twenty-five coup attempts. In 1926, he took over the army administration and for forty-eight years the country was ruled by General Franko as a dictatorship. When the government was dismissed as a result of a coup d’etat by young officers on April 25, 1974, a military junta led by General Antonio de Spinola took control. President Spinola was forced to resign at the end of September of the same year as a result of pressure from leftist officers. In April 1975, despite the fact that the democratic parties won 64% of the vote, the Soviet-backed communist party increased its influence. Banks, insurances and industry were nationalized. The new constitution, which came into force in 1976, has also clearly demonstrated the goal of transition to socialism. In the general elections held after the new Constitution, no party had achieved a majority. Socialist Party President Mário Soares established a minority government. The President of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Antánio Ramalho Eones was elected. The government headed by Mário Soares resigned in December 1977. The coalition government established in January and a series of coalitions formed thereafter were short-lived. After the elections in 1980, the center-right Democratic Alliance came to power with a large majority. This government made major changes to the constitution and opened the way for civilian administration. In 1982, upon the government crisis, the President decided to hold early elections. The Socialist Party of Portugal, which became the first party in the elections held in April 1983, formed a coalition with the Social Democratic Party. Portugal was taken to the EEC on January 1, 1986. Soares was elected as the first civilian president in February 1986 after a break of 60 years. In July 1987, the Social Democratic Party increased the number of its seats to a large extent, leading to a stable coalition government. In the elections held in 1991, the Social Democratic Party maintained its first place.

Physical Structure

Portugal is mostly covered with low and medium-high land. More than 70% of the soil is below 400 meters above sea level. The Tagus River divides the country into two distinct regions. The north of the Tagus River is largely mountainous. In particular, 90% of the land is over 400 meters north of the Douro River.

The large plateaus were split into deep valleys. In some places the mountains exceed 50 m inside and 910 m above sea level. There is a triangular coastal plain between the Douro and Tagus rivers and there are several large valleys in the interior. The Serra de Estrela Range, which stretches towards Spain, reaches a height of 1991 meters in Torre Torre (Portugal’s highest peak). The other great rivers other than the Tagus and Douro, which spilled into the Atlantic Ocean from this region, are Minho, Mondego and Zezere, which form part of the Spanish border in the north. Approximately 60% of the territory to the south of the Tagus River is below 200 m. It is an area covered by undulating plains and low plateaus. High hills are rare and only a mountain range called Serra de Sao Mamede exceeds 900 m. The only major river in this region is the Guadiana River, which flows in the north-south direction and forms a wide valley and poured into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern tip of the country.

Climate

In the north of Portugal, temperate (moderate) climate and a warm climate prevail in the south. Cold winds bringing rain from the west during the winter. But when it comes to summer, there is a warm wave of dry weather from the south and little rain. As the northern part has a colder climate than the south, it receives more precipitation on most days of the year than it was exposed to the ocean winds blowing from the west. As it goes southward from the Tagus River, rainfall decreases and hot-dry summer continues for a long time.

The temperatures on the Portuguese coast are almost the same everywhere. In Lisbon, in the middle of the west coast, temperatures range from 7 ° C to 15 ° C in January and from 18 ° C to 28 ° C in July.

Natural Resources

Approximately 35% of Portugal is forested. 90% of the forests are covered with oak trees. Other important trees are chestnuts, figs, carob and almonds. Portuguese oak is the world’s first in making cork. Most wild animals, like wild rabbits and foxes, are small. The deer is located in mountainous areas. The underground riches are tungsten, copper, iron, marble, granite and slate.

Population and Social Life

In Portugal, which has a population of 10,372,000 people do not differ in terms of ethnicity. Most of the Portuguese are a bit shorter than the average European average, with black eyes and black eyes. The population of the present-day population is composed of people coming to the Iberian Peninsula at different times. These are Celts, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Jews, Germanic tribes, Arabs and Berbers.

The Portuguese have been migrating to the world since the 15th century. The government seriously prohibited immigration in the 1960s in order to maintain its workforce. However, thousands of young Portuguese people continue to leave the country unlawfully and flee to France and other Western European countries for more wages. At the same time, there is migration from the villages to the city centers with new industries. The most important city in the middle of the west coast is Lisbon, with a population of 2,063,000. Other important cities are Oporto, Amadora, Coimba, Borreiro, Braga, Almada and Coimbra.

The official language of the country is Portuguese. 98% of the population is Roman Catholic, but there are few thousand Protestants and few Jews.

In Portugal, primary education is compulsory and starts from the age of 6. In the country where the literacy rate is 70%, the higher education is carried out in the universities of Lisbon, Oporto and Coimbra, the Technical and Catholic University of Lisbon and in different institutes.

Political Life

Portekiz, which entered into a socialist administration with the new constitution which was put into force in April 1976, is divided into 18 administrative regions. The main governing bodies are the president, the revolutionary council and the government. The Revolutionary Council consisted of 4 officers and 14 officers elected from the armed forces. Portugal is a member of NATO.

The elections in 1980 were mostly won by the Democratic Alliance, centered on the center-right. The new government has made many changes in the constitution and opened the way for civilian administration. The Social Democrat Party won the elections in October 1985, defending the free market economy. In February 1986, Mário Soares won the presidential election and became the first civilian president after a hiatus of 60 years. In the same year Portugal was taken to the EEC. With the amendment made in 1989, socialism statements were removed from the constitution.

Economy

Portugal is one of the least developed countries in Europe and the level of life in the country is low. 31% of the working population works in agriculture, 35% in industry and trade and 34% in various services. The manufacturing and construction industry provides more than two-fifths of the gross national product. Agriculture provides only one third of the gross national product.

In Portugal, food industry, textile, furniture and construction sector have a significant place since. There are milling, sugar, fish, canned and olive oil factories related to the food industry. The main products of the textile industry are cotton, twisted wool yarn and dress. In connection with the clothing industry, shoe manufacturing has also been developed. Forest riches; It is used in the production of paper pulp, paper, bottle cork, tar, resin, nephth oil and especially in furniture.

One of the most important new industrial branches is the electronic machinery and its auxiliary components. The establishment of oil refineries has led to the development of the petrochemical industry. Small scale iron and steel industry is available. Shipbuilding and ship repair facilities made Portugal the first in Europe in this sector.

Approximately 55% of the land in Portugal is suitable for agriculture. Most of the arable land is grown in grain (wheat and rye). However, in most places the yield is low and the soil is inefficient and less likely to be erosion. The labor force is particularly insufficient in the south. The country has to import wheat and other grains.

In Portugal, vine gardens occupy 10% of the cultivated land. Olive oil production in the country is also advanced. Fruit trees grow apples and pears in the northern half of the country, oranges in the south.

Although the mineral deposits are very diverse in Portugal, most of them are inadequate and cannot be operated at the desired level due to inadequate places or inadequate funds. The important minerals extracted are tungsten, iron, sulfur copper, marble, granite and slate. Portugal imports all the oil it needs.

Portugal exports twisted wool yarn, fabric, clothes, canned fish, bottle cork, pulp and paper, electrical appliances. Portugal does most of its trade with the European Common Market countries of which it is a member.

In Portugal, the highways are 44,953 km. 44.680 km of it is covered with asphalt. The railways are 3600 km and are lower than other Western European countries. Air transport is available from 13 airports. The Portuguese trade fleet is large and has a capacity of 750,000 tonnes.

 

Switzerland

Historical

Today Celtic tribes living in Helvetia, Switzerland The city was considered a part of the Roman Empire for five centuries after being defeated by the Roman Emperor Julius Caesar in 58 BC. A.D. The Burgonds, which accepted Christianity in the 5th century, settled on both sides of the Jura’s Lake Geneva. The Germans settled in the Rhine and the Lower Aarhus basin. After the region, Rome joined the Germanic Empire. Feudal states began to be established from the eleventh century onwards. In the thirteenth century, the Habsburgs ruled central and western Switzerland. In 1291, the three cantons of Schwyzuri Nidwalden united to form a defense alliance against the Habsburgs. Thus the Swiss Confederation (named after Schwzy, the largest of the cantons) was born. In later centuries, the Swiss attacked several times with weapons to defend independence against the Habsburgs. In the fourteenth century, Luzirn, Zürich, Glaruszug and Bern merged with the first three cantons. In 1481 Appenzell joined Friborg, Solothurn in 1501, Basel in 1501, and in 1513. Switzerland, which developed its military power, adopted the policy of neutrality. Protestants were defeated in the canton conflict during the reform. In 1648, the independence of Switzerland was formally adopted by the Treaty of Westphalia. During the Napoleonic wars, the French occupied the country (1798). Napoleon united the cantons into a federation and founded the Republic of Helvet. After the defeat of Napoleon, the cantons were not broken. At the Vienna Congress of 1815, Switzerland’s neutrality was accepted. In 1847, a civil war broke out in the country. Some cantons wanted to establish a confederation, and some did not. The Swiss Confederation was established in 1848, when those who fought for the confederation won the war. Switzerland remained neutral in the First and Second World Wars. It is not connected to any block. The reason for this is that all the states of the world, statesmen have had confidant accounts in Swiss banks. In 1978, a decision was made to establish a new canton with a referendum and the Jura canton was established on 1 January 1979.

Physical Structure Switzerland is the most mountainous country in Europe. 3/4 of the land is covered with mountains. The Jura Mountains, which extend along the northwestern French border, are separated from the Alps, which cover the southern part of the country, by the Mitteland plateau. The Swiss Alps include the central part extending from Mont-Blanc to the Orts. The southern part of the country, which constitutes a large part of the country, is composed of the Alps of the Alps, the Pennine Alps, the Lepontine Alps and the eastern Rehetia Alps. The highest peaks are the Mente Rosa and Matterhorn (4478 m) hills located in the Pennine Alps. The highest peaks in the Bern Alps are the Jungster (4166 m) with the Finsteraarrhorn (4274 m).

The Swiss high plateau is the plateau between the Alps and the Jura Mountains. This highland is 1000 m high. It is also referred to as the Swiss Hills. This highland is covered with meadows and conifer forests.

Two large rivers of Europe emerge from the Swiss Alps. The Rhine River originates from two springs flowing into Lake Knostanz. Rhone .ni source is the southwestern glaciers. The Ticino River flows south. There are many lakes in Switzerland. The largest of these is Lake Constance, which borders Germany and Austria. The other important lakes are Zürich, Lulerne, Neuchatel and Leman.

Climate

The climate of Switzerland is very different. Although the weather is dry and open in the Rhetia Alps, the Ticino Canton has a humid temperature, while the Magiore and the Lugarna Lakes dominate the Mediterranean climate. The high hills of the mountains remain covered with snow throughout the year. The climate is usually mutedil. In all cantons except Ticinoso canton, the average winter temperature is below 0 ° C. In summer, the average temperature reaches 27 ° C.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Forests constitute 23% of the country’s territory. 70% of the forests are covered with coniferous trees and the rest is covered with broadleaf trees. Forests include oak, beech, walnut, pine and chestnut trees. Forests provide half of Switzerland’s timber needs. On the high Alpine slopes are mountain goats, rabbits, marmot and prey birds.

Mines: Switzerland is poor in terms of underground resources. There are few coal deposits in the country. Salt deposits are important.

Population and Social Life

Its population is 6,911,000 and a large part of the population is concentrated in cities and highlands. The major cities are Bern, Zürich, Basel and Geneva. There are still significant differences in terms of tradition, language and language in cantons and villages. In Switzerland, four languages ??are used as the official language. 65% of the public speaks German, 18% speaks French, 12% speaks Italian and 1% speaks Romaş.

Religious: People are Christian, 49.4% Catholic, 47.8% is Protestant.

Education: The level of education in Switzerland is very high. Literacy rate is 100%. Teaching between 6 and 14 years is compulsory. 25 different education systems in the country control cantons. There are 8 universities and 2 technical colleges in Switzerland. Seven of the universities are world famous and students from various countries are educated in these schools.

Political Life

The Constitution, still in force in Switzerland, entered into force in 1848. According to the constitution, Switzerland is composed of 20 sovereigns and 6 half-cantons. The federal council consists of a state council of 44 members and a 200-member national council elected directly by the people. The cantons, which are governed by the state council, send two members, each of which is half cantons. The Federal Council consists of seven members elected by the Federal Assembly for four years. The president and vice-president of the confederation, which are members of the Federal Council, are elected by the Bundestag every year.

Economy

The basis of the Swiss economy is the agriculture-based food industry, the chemical and the pharmaceutical industry. Animal husbandry is also very important.

Agriculture: Agricultural land in Switzerland is often too high to be studied. 6% of the soil can be planted. 6% of the people engaged in agriculture. The main products grown mainly are potatoes, rye and corn. Viticulture developed. On the shores of the lake and mountain foothills are made. Most grown fruits are apples, grapes, pears, plums and cherries.

Livestock: In Switzerland, livestock holds a big place in the economy. Since half of the land consists of grasslands and grasslands that grow constantly, it is a valuable natural resource for livestock. Goats and sheep are grown in high regions. Studies in the field of animal husbandry are carried out to grow cattle and cows, and dairy animals. The amount of milk obtained is approximately 3.650.000 tons and the cheese production is 129.000 tons. The cheese sector is world famous. It has a worldwide reputation in chocolate, which is counted in dairy products.

Industry: In Switzerland, 40% of the workforce is employed in the industrial sector. The steel industry in the country has developed. For this purpose it receives iron ore from outside. Heavy industry products such as machinery, locomotives and turbines are manufactured. The production of electrical machines, scientific and optical instruments has an important place in the country industry. The chemical and pharmaceutical industry is well developed. Watchmaking is a famous industrial branch of the country. Swiss watches are world famous. 90% of industrial production is exported.

Trade: Most of the industrial products are exported. Exported goods include electric motors, machinery, locomotives, turbines, woven products, dairy products, watches, chocolate, pharmaceuticals and chemical products. Switzerland is the major banking center that plays an important role in the world’s financial life. 10% of Swiss people deal with banking. Swiss banking and insurance provide huge income from the source. Another important source of income is tourism. The Swiss summer winter undergoes the influx of tourists all year round. Imported oil comes from the beginning of the substances. This is followed by other industrial raw materials and nutrients.

Transportation: There are 64,855 km of highway in Switzerland. 1.057 km of this is connected to the international road network. The total length of the railways is 4991 km. There are also special lines of 830 km. Air transport is provided by Swissair, established in 1931. The sea trade fleet consists of 30 ships and has a load capacity of 294,304 gross tons. The most important port is Basel.

 

Ukraine

Historical

Various states were established throughout the history of the region. Founded in the ninth century, the first Russian state, the Principality of Kiev, was destroyed by the Mongol attacks in the 13th century. In Western Ukraine, the Principality of Galicia and Volynia continued its dominance from the 11th to the 14th century.

Most of the territory of the country was under the domination of Lithuania in the 14th century. After the assassination of the Lublin unit, which made Poland and Lithuania a single federated state, was procured in 1569, the territory of Ukraine was de facto dominated by Poland. The leader of the Zaporozhye Cossacks, Bogdan Khmelnynik, rebelled against the Polish government and in 1651 asked the Russian tsar for help. This caused a war between the Russian Tsarist and Poland. After the war, the lands east of the Dnieper River and Kiev were dominated by Russians. When the Crimea entered the Russian domination in 1783, new settlements began to be established on the Black Sea coast.

In the eighteenth century, when the Polish lands were shared, the Ukrainian lands to the west of the Dnieper were dominated by Russian rule, while Galicia was dominated by Austria. In the nineteenth century, when nationalist movements became widespread in Ukraine, the Russian tsar resorted to severe measures to suppress these movements. He limited the use of Ukrainian. The Ukrainians, who were under the control of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, were more comfortable. At the beginning of the First World War, the Ukrainians in Galicia developed their own cultural, political and religious institutions.

After the 1917 revolution in Russia, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was established in Kharkov. Upon the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ukrainians established the National Republic of Western Ukraine in 1918 by taking over the administrative center of Galicia, Lemberg. This state was united with the Ukrainian National Republic in 1919, but in June 1919 the Ukrainian soldier was removed from Galicia. The former Ukrainian cities of Bukovina Romania and the territory of Hungary were dominated by the newly formed Czechoslovakia. While the various states worked to seize the domination of Ukraine between 1917-21, they did not succeed. In 1924, Ukraine became one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union.

Until the Second World War, Ukraine quickly industrialized and implemented a collective collective policy in agriculture. The villagers reacted to this big act. During the Stalin period the pressures in the region were increased and the use of the Ukrainian banned. Only Ukrainians living in Czechoslovakia had broad political and cultural rights.

With the signing of the German-Soviet non-aggression pact in 1939, the lands of Eastern Galicia and Western Volnia, which were dominated by Poland, were left to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. In June 1941, the Germans attacked Russia and soon occupied Ukraine. The Germans, who were initially supported by the Ukrainians, later encountered guerrilla resistance. All the territories of Ukraine came under the domination of Russia after the Germans were defeated at the end of the war.

The reforms that began in Russia in 1989 have caused radical changes in Ukraine. The first multiparty elections were held. The country entered a new political and economic period. Ukraine declared its independence in 1991 and was one of the founders of the Commonwealth of Independent States in the same year.

Physical Structure

The territory of the country occupies most of the Eastern European Plain. To the northeast is an extension of the Central Russian Plateau. The Black Sea coast extending along the shores of the Black Sea forms the Crimean Plain on the Crimean peninsula. The length of the Carpathian Mountains in the west exceeds 240 km. The Crimean Mountains between the Black Sea and the Sea of ??Azov occur in three parallel places parallel to each other. These are valleys.

The main rivers are the Dniester and the Dnieper rivers and flow into the Azov-Black Sea Basin. A part of the Pripet Marsh and an inland sea, the Sea of ??Azov remains within the borders of the country.

Natural Resources

Mines: Ukraine; manganese ore is one of the richest regions in the world. There is also a significant amount of iron ore.

Population and Social Life

The population of Ukraine is 51.944.000 and the population density is 86ın. 72.7% of the population is Ukrainian, 22% is Russian and 5.3% is composed of other nationalities. 67% of the people live in cities and 33% live in villages. The main cities are Sevastopol, Odessa, Kharkiv, Denetsk, Krivay Rog and Zaporojye.

In Ukraine, education between 7-17 years of age is compulsory and free of charge. Education is carried out in Ukrainian. There are also schools where Russian, Moldavian, Polish, Bulgarian, Hungarian, French, German, Spanish and English are used. There are more than 140 higher education institutions in the country and many scientific studies related to the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Ukraine. There is no literacy in Ukraine.

Economy

The economy is based on agriculture and industry. The machine is widely used in agriculture. There are about eight thousand collective farms (Kolkhoz) around the country and around 1700 state farms (Sovhoz). These farms feed on cattle for meat and milk. In addition, cereals, vegetables, potatoes and sugar beet are grown.

The steel industry in Ukraine has improved. There are also factories in the country that produce metallurgy vehicles, diesel locomotives, televisions and tractors. Sun .i fertilizer, sulfuric acid and sugar factories occupy an important place in the economy. Almost all of the energy used in industrial plants is derived from fossil fuels.

Political Life

The highest legislative body in Ukraine is the High Council. The members of the Assembly shall be determined by elections held every five years. The High Assembly appoints the President and members of the Council of Ministers.

 

Argentina

The Republic of Argentina (Spain. República Argentina) 34 Güney 36 ları ’South latitudes and 58’ 27 leri en It is a country located in the South American continent, among Western longitudes. Argentina’s total area of ??2, 766, 890 sq km – nearly 3.5 times larger than Turkey – (it’s 2, 736, 690 km²’s land, water km²’s 30,200), while the 2006 figures, the population of 39, 921, It is 833 people.

Argentina is a state stretching between the Andes and the Atlantic Ocean in the southern part of the South American continent; the length of the coastline is 4989 km. The land owned by Argentina is the second largest in the South America and the 8th in the world. It is located on the border of Chile (5,308 km), Bolivia (832 km), Paraguay (1,880 km), Brazil (1,261 km) and Uruguay (580 km).

The name of Argentina comes from the Latin word ’Argentum’ ‘(silver). The name of the country, which is what the Spanish colonists hope to find in these lands, can be clearly understood. Most of the inhabitants of the country are descendants of Spanish and Italian immigrants.

Geography

With an area of ??about 2.8 million square kilometers, Argentina narrows as it goes from north to south, reminiscent of a long triangle. The length of the largest land extending from north to south is 3.694 km and from west to east is approximately 1.423 km. The Atlantic Ocean extends along the east coast, Chile to the west, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, and Brazil and Uruguay to the northeast.

Argentina is divided into 23 provinces (provincias) and a federal region (distrito federal):

States:
1 – Buenos Aires
2 – Buenos Aires (state)
3 – Catamarca
4 – Chaco
5 – Chubut
6 – Córdoba
7 – Corrientes
8 – Entre Ríos
9 – Formosa
10 – Jujuy
11 – La Pampa
12 – La Rioja
13 – Mendoza
14 – Misiones
15 – Neuquén
16 – Río Negro
17 – Salta
– San Juan
19 – San Luis
20 – Santa Cruz
21 – Santa Fe
22 – Santiago del Estero
23 – Tierra del Fuego and the South Atlantic Islands
24 – Tucúman

Federal District:
Buenos Aires

Surface Shapes

Patagonia, Argentina The main feature of the surface shapes of the eastern plains in the west creates a great contrast between the mountains.

In the West, the Andes rises with depressions, elevations, and volcanic eruptions. The ongoing earthquakes and volcanoes in the region prove that the territory is not yet occupied. The Andes in the north are more masculine. The high plateau extends between the 3500 – 4500 meters high, which is the continuation of the high plateaus of Bolivia. There are volcanoes with altitude exceeding 6000 meters. In the South, the mass is divided into closed basins and elevated blocks, and the climate becomes dry. This arid Catamarca la Rioja lies between the Mendoza foothills and the Santiago basin, in the form of a high mountain range (the highest point in Argentina with 6959 meters in Aconcagua). In 36 ° South latitude, the Andes are narrowed, descended and crushed by large transverse ruptures. The fourth glaciation was effective in this area and contributed to the formation of transverse valleys and lakes (Nahuel Huapí, etc.).

Sarmiento Park, Córdoba The plains and plateaus covering a large part of the country spread over the vastly lowered Brazilian saddle. The Brazilian shield creates very high masses only in the great mass of the Córdoba in front of the Andes, (a real wall covering the horizon from the West and a height of more than 2000 meters); in the south of the plain, it takes on much less high forms. It is astonishing that the topography of the region covering an area of ??one million square kilometers, extending from the Paraguayan border to the Colorado River, and that there are no regular river streams. Wind sediments at the end of the Third Time and at the beginning of the Fourth Time formed thick slime layers with salty and mostly crustal layers, but these layers were covered with loaves in the East and North during the near glacial periods, and sand in the west and in the central part. The surface forms are very diverse in detail and are dependent on climatic characteristics. In the tropical climate zone of Chaco, there is a deforested vegetation with palm trees. In the East and South, the Pampas region, which is located in the temperate climate latitudes, is covered with natural meadows. The meadows of various species, loose, deep and fertile black or brown lands give the Pampa a world-famous productivity. Paraná and Paraguay form a real river set in the east, which determines the boundary of the plain (the rivers used to have reached the plain from the ocean). In the east lies the hills of Entre Ríos, the flooded plains of Corrientes, and the basalt ridges of Misiones, forming a whole (a kind of Mesopotamia) between the River Paraná and the River Uruguay.

Mountains

Aconcagua, Argentina There are many mountain ranges over 6,000 meters in the Andes. The highest peak of Argentina and the Americas (Aconcagua) and the two highest volcanoes in the world, Ojos del Salado (6.880 m) and Monte Pissis (6.795m) are located here. In the southern parts of the Andes, high mountains are less sparse, but they are covered with snow due to the cool and cold climate.

It is also possible to find elevations in Sierras Pampeanas. The Sierra de Famatina in the state of La Rioja is over 6,000 meters. However, the altitude of these mountain ranges decreases as they go east, and the heights of the mountains in Sierras de Córdoba are at most 2,800 meters.

In the northern part of the Mesetas Patagónicas (Patagonia Plains), the elevations in the southeast of Mendoza are about 4,700 meters, while these elevations are reduced as they go to the southeast. Mountains in other parts of Argentina rarely exceed 1,000 meters. Examples of these rare cases are the Sierras Australes Bonaerenses (Sierra de la Ventana and Sierra de Tandil) on the Atlantic coast and in the mountainous region of Misiones.

Rivers and Lakes

The source of the rivers in Argentina is largely Río de la Plata. The rivers pouring into Río de la Plata are spread over an area of ??5,200,000 km² and almost a third of this area is located within the borders of Argentina, while the rest is located in Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The two major rivers pouring into Río de la Plata are the Paraná River and the River Uruguay. In the north, the Iguazú and Iguazú National Park, one of the largest waterfalls in the world, are located on the Brazilian border. The Iguazú River and its waterfalls are three times larger than the Niagara Falls.

Iguazú Falls, the second largest river in the north of Patagonia, is Colorado. Its most important branch, the Río Salado del Oeste, waters a large part of Western Argentina, but it is a dry, swampy river that has become an arid climate.

There are two large lakes in Argentina. The first and the big one is the region where the fresh water lakes start from the foothills of the Southern Andes and follow each other from the Neuquén to the Fire Lands (Tierra del Fuego). The second is the low and generally salty lakes in the western part of Pampa and south of Chaco.

Laguna Mar Chiquita (5770 km²) and the Los Glaciares National Park in Córdoba, and Lago Argentino (1415 km²) and Lago Viedma (1088 km²), which are accepted by NATO as a world heritage, are among the important lakes. The famous Perito Moreno Glacier is also located in this park.

Islands

La Isla de los Lobos (Seal Island) Argentina has a very long coastline, but it has a very small number of islands. Its largest island is the Tierra del Fuego (47,000 km²), which belongs to the Tierra del Fuego Archipelago. It shared the island with Argentina (21,571 km²) and Chile (25,571 km²). In addition, there are Falkland Islands (Las Islas Malvinas / Falkland Islands), which are claimed by Argentina, but are governed by the United Kingdom. After the invasion of the island in April 1982 in Argentina, the Falkland War, which lasted until June 14, 1982, began and this war ended with the defeat of Argentina. The largest island in the Falkland Archipelago is Soledad (East Falkland) -6683 km²- and Gran Malvina (West Falkland) – 5278 km². South Georgia and the South Sissy Islands have the same status.

Other important islands are the islands located in the area between Bahía Blanca and Bahía Anegada Bay in the south of Buenos Aires Province. The islands are flat and are completely empty, except for Jabalí Island, where the San Blas spa is located. The biggest island is Trinidad Island with an area of ??207 km². There are also a few small islands on the coast of Patagonia.

Climate and Vegetation

The southern tip of the country on the ocean front is humid and temperatures are never high. The climate is warm, rainy and tea is grown here in the state of Misiones, at a temperature of 9.2 ° C in the Ushuaia, at a north end of 3700 km, in the province of Misiones. In all the regions of the country, while the temperatures from North to South are decreasing, the main feature of the climate is that it is dry. It extends across Argentina from a wide arid zone from the Northwest to the Southwest. This) arid diagonal görül begins in high plateaus and basins in the Andes, and runs on mountain foothills (193 mm rainfall per year in Mendoza) and ends on the Patagonia coast (rainfall below 200 mm). The climate in Pampa changes gradually from the Atlantic coast towards the interior. The rainy (1200 mm) and generally soft climate near the Río de la Plata is terrestrial and arid in the interior. Rainfall is intensified during the summer and the moisture they bring undergoes a great evaporation. The 600 mm stock curve draws a wide arc from Bahía Blanca to Córdoba. Thus, from the ’rainy” Pampa to the “dry” Pampa.

Pucará de Tilcara, Due to these conditions described, there is little forest in Argentina. A large part of the country is covered with meadows and thorny bushes. The western half of the country, located in the North of Patagonia, is covered with a sparse plant assemblage consisting of trees and small trees with few spines and few leaves. A small amount of shrubs and some wheat grains were clustered between the rocks of Patagonia. An endless meadow of high natural grass and a bad pasture, the Pampa has been replaced by the introduction of new herbs from Europe and the spreading of clover and clover. The tree is planted, but real forests are located in the southern Andes lakes in the administrative region (Arokarya Forests) and around the Strait of Magellan (beech forests). The large tropical forest in the north is located in Argentina in two places: on the eastern slopes of the Misiones and on the eastern slopes of the Tucumán Andes, there is a forest (Quebrachos), which is dominated by hardwood-rich species.

Population and Economy

The settlement of people to Argentina took place by descending from the Spanish highlands to the northwest and from the mining areas to the Andes. This was the first Argentine, an extension of the mining areas in question, providing grain, sheep and load animals (especially mule). The Atlantic Ocean front was uninterested for a long time. Therefore, the agricultural and shepherd economy of the Andes in the northwest is XVIII. century, and the cities established by the Spanish (colonial-era-dependent and vibrant Argentina [[Buenos Aires]] port and Pampa] still densely populated by migrations to the right), the day until the foundation of the hybrid Argentina It was created. XIII. In the second half of the 16th century, when the city of Buenos Aires was established by the King Naipate (its capital was Buenos Aires) and opened to Atlantic Ocean trade before independence, the weight of Argentina began to Aires slide ine from the Andes to the Plata halic, and the exact turning XIX. the last quarter of the century. The main role in this development was the fact that the cattle, who were allowed to wander in Pampa during the conquest of the Spaniards, started to grow with commercial understanding. XIII to Europe: leather in the XIX century, XIX. While dried meat was sold in the first half of the century, these products were replaced by sheep wool. After this date, the owners of the meadows in Pampa became the main economic and political power closely related to the foreign bourgeoisie in Buenos Aires, and over time in the whole of Argentina. The European city markets, capitals, techniques and even people were allowed to settle in the territory of the country between 1800 and 1900 and then to equip and complete all of these lands. Until 1929 the Great Economic Depression, the country experienced a great period of prosperity, based on the evaluation of agricultural products for export (Great Britain). Very large farms (y lar iler iler estancia ek, ayır) were made in Pampa, and the landowners added wheat, linen and corn to the ramers they placed in these farms, then separated large areas of clover for the cattle. Large farms began to meet the requirements of frozen meat of British butchers. In the Rosario Santa Fe Pampa area near Paraná and in many parts of the arid Pampas, large landowners divide their land into parcels and rented or shared land to farmers from Italy or even from Eastern Europe. This type of crops cultivated in 1930 turned Argentina into a country selling mainly wheat, corn and oil in international trade. The country’s marginal areas were opened to operation, focusing on agriculture for domestic consumption (except for Patagonia, where sheep-wool was sold abroad – left to large-scale companies). When the Great Economic Depression erupted, Argentina, where 7 million migrants (half of them Italian, one-third Spanish) came, became a biri new lak country where white people lived. The country’s products were Ülke flowing ’into the ports of Bahía Blanca, especially in the port of Buenos Aires, down the coast of Paraná, through its frequent rail network in the Pampas and their arms to the edge. Since the population could not find land in the rural areas owned by a small number of large landowners, the population flocked to flock cities. The economic crisis increased this development in urbanization; Buenos Aires, where the migration from the village to the city has reached extraordinary dimensions, has become one of the biggest mainland in the world. The state supported the development of industry. After 1947, during the period of Peron’s presidency, the state undertook public services and major equipment work, and supported the cooperation between the national private sector based on a corporation trade union movement and the ini heavy industry m that was under the control of the military. Due to the absence of foreign markets, Pampa agriculture paused until the end of the Second World War; but in the same period, the European hunger and meat were deprived of hunger as a result of the continuation of the policy of systematically transferring to the non-agricultural sectors. In spite of the development of new products for the domestic market (milk, oil extracted plants), the migration from the village to the city reached to giant dimensions. At the end of the 1950s, this large agricultural country was completely excluded from the world market as a result of the extraordinary developments in the Anglo-Saxon type of agriculture of new countries. Common equipment from the turn of the century was obsolete, especially in terms of rail and maritime transport. However, while several light industries were developing, several important new branches, such as the oil and steel industry, were established. Argentina has become an urbanized country, even a bomb city-country Arjantin, while its vast territory is an empty country.

 

Colombia

Historical

The territories of Colombia were discovered by the Spaniards under the command of Ganzalo Jiménez de Quesada and Sebastian de Balalcozar at the beginning of the 16th century and turned into a colony.

Until the eighteenth century, the country was ruled by whites of Spanish origin. After that, the struggle for independence was strengthened by North America and France.

In 1886, the country was named after Columbus, who discovered the continent, and the Republic of Colombia was proclaimed. In 1903, Panama became an independent state with the aid of the US. Due to this separation, there was tension between the USA and Colombia until 1921. After this date, the Liberal Party, the two big parties to the Colombian Party and the Conservative Party was dominated. But the friction between the two parties led to internal turmoil and the country being ruled by dictators for a long time. Today, internal civil unrest continues in Colombia, which is governed by civilian government.

Physical Structure

In terms of physical structure, Colombia is divided into three different regions.

Coast: Colombia is the only country in South America that has two large oceans. The Siarra Baudo region on the shores of the Great Ocean, the shores of the Atlantic Ocean, and all the shores except the Santa Marta region are flat and low.

Mountains: The Colombian Andes open in the form of a fan near the south-western border of the country, extending to the north and northeast, creating three mountain ranges. They are called Eastern Cordillera, Central and Western Cordillera. The western Cordillera Mountains are relatively low. However, there are high hills such as Cumbal Volcano (4892 m).

Middle Cordillera is high and the hills are covered with snow. The Cauca River, which is located between the West and the Central Cordillera, floods the Cauca River.

The wide valley between the central and eastern Cordillera mountains, the waters of the Meydelona River. The highlands of 2000-3000 m in the Eastern Cordillera Mountains are very high. This region creates the agricultural area of ??the country with its fertile land.

Eastern region: This region is a large and flat area, irrigated by the tributaries of large rivers such as Orinoko and Amazon. The northern part of this region is covered with savanna and the southern part is covered by equatorial forests. Only about 20% of the population lives in the region, which constitutes about half of the country’s territory.

Climate

Because of Colombia’s proximity to the equator, the climate is tropical. Climate varies by region. An average annual precipitation of 10.160 mm falls to the west of Western Cordillera, while the average annual precipitation on the coast of the Caribbean Sea is below 255 mm. In the eastern part, the humid tropical climate prevails.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Vegetation also varies according to regions such as climate. Tropical forests around the Amazon, swamp bays on the shores of the Great Ocean; moist grasslands in the northern part; mountain plants in high mountains; There are desert plants in La Guajira. The country, which has such a diverse flora, has jaguar, lion, fox, mammalian bears like bears, birds approaching two thousand, numerous insects and reptiles.

Mines: The country is rich in underground resources. There are various metals such as oil, gold, platinum, emerald, coal, iron and limestone. It takes second place in the world in platinum production.

Population and Social Life

The population of the country is 33.292.000 and consists of four ethnic groups. Indians constitute 7% of the population, 5% are blacks, 20% are whites and the rest are hybrids.

Most of the population is concentrated on the plateaus of the Eastern Cordillera Mountains and on the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean. Major cities spread to different parts of the country. Important cities: Medellin, Berangu and Cartogena.

The official language is Spanish. But the words of the languages ??of the Indians and blacks were enriched and changed. Most of the people belong to the Catholic sect of Christianity.

Education: 5 years of primary education in the country is compulsory and free. One of the countries with the highest literacy rate in South America is Colombia. 80% of the people are literate. There are 22 universities.

Political Life

The legislative power in the country governed by a Republic based on the presidential system rests with the Parliament. The parliament consists of a 112-member senate and a 214-member assembly, elected for 4 years.

Economy

Agriculture: Agriculture is usually based on coffee production. It takes first place in coffee production in the world. Coffee grows mostly in the valleys of Cauca and Magdalena. Coffee, corn, sugarcane, cotton, banana, rice, potatoes, wheat and tobacco are grown. Livestock breeding is usually developed on the coast of the Caribbean and on the plains in the east of the East.

Industry: Industry moves in the country have been successful in recent years. Industrial centers are gathered around three major cities. Textile industry has progressed. There are oil refineries, cement, rubber, paper mills, food processing factories and automobiles, electrical appliances and chemicals factories, which are generally established with foreign investments.

Trade: The most important product of the Colombian trade is coffee. Half of its exports make coffee. It follows oil, banana, cotton, sugar, platinum, gold, tobacco and cattle. Outside, it buys motor vehicles and machinery.

Transportation: Transverse mountain ranges of the country prevent road construction. The length of railways in the country is 106,218 km and the length of the railways is 3500 km. 10% of the roads are asphalt. 1500 km of the Magdelena River can be reached by transportation.

In the major cities, air transportation is established with the Airlines established in 1919. There are 69 airports in the country.

 

Venezuela

Historical

Until 1498, when Chistophes was discovered by Columbus (Christopher Colomp), the population of the Carib was formed. For the Spaniards, the conquest of Venezuela was difficult and slow due to the strong resistance of the Indians. Many towns were established in the country. Caracas was founded in 1567 and became the capital city in 1577. Venezuela was given to the administration of other colonies because it was considered a relatively insignificant part of the Spanish Empire. He was tied to Santo Domingo, the current Dominican Republic, and then to the Governor’s office in Granada. In 1776, the declaration of independence of the US and the French Revolution of 1789 were a model for independence. Napoleon’s war against Spain brought the end of the colonial era in April 1810. The creeks (the white people born in the country) set up a junta by dismissing the Spanish ruler. On 5 July 1811, an independent confederation was declared. This proclamation led to a 10-year war between the royal forces and the Creols. On June 24, 1821, the final victory was attained against Spain in the battle of Carababo. As a result of the dispute, Venezuela was an independent republic in 1830, leaving the confederation of many South American countries. From 1830 to the end of the 19th century, great crises followed one another. In most of the twentieth century, the country was ruled by military dictators. They developed the oil industry, made many social reforms. Since 1959, the country has begun to be ruled by governments that have come to power with democratic elections. The dispute with Guyana in the Essequibo border region began again in 1982. Pérez, who was elected for a second term in 1989, led to street demonstrations. When the people began the looting business, many people died on the intervention of the troops. In the elections held in December 1993, Rafael Caldera was elected to the presidency by taking the majority of votes. Rafael Celdera became president for the second time after 25 years. He took office on 6 December 1993.

Physical Structure

Venezuela is divided into four different natural regions: the Maracaibo lowlands, the northern highlands, the Orinoco lowlands and the Guyana Plateau. The length of the coasts is 2815 km and includes 72 islands of big and small in the Caribbean Sea. The largest of these islands is Margorita.

The Maracabio lowlands contain 52,000 km2 plain plains around Lake Maracabio and the Gulf of Venezuela. This area also includes the Paraguana Peninsula. It is separated from the rest of the country by Cardillera de Mérida in the south-east and Segovia in the northeast.

The mountainous region in the north begins with the Sierra de Périja, a branch of the Colombian Andes. The Cordillera de Mérida, another branch of the Andes, extends towards the shore in the northeast. The width of these mountains ranges from 13 to 64 km and the highest point is Pico Bolivar (5007 m). All year long, there is only snow on these mountains.

To the north are the Orinoco Plains to the south of the mountains. These plains extend from the Colombian border to the Atlantic Ocean on the Orinoco Delta. The plains narrow to the east between the rivers and their width decreases from 400 km to 80 km. Then it expands again in the Orinoco Delta.

The Guyana Plateau is located south of the Orinoco River and contains more than half of the territory of Venezuela. The wide plateaus are cut abruptly at the tip of steep rocks of 762 m. The heights reach up to 2180 m in the flat hills, which rise from their soles vertically. Angel waterfalls (979 m), the highest waterfall in the world, are poured from Auyáan-Tepui.

The country was built with a large river network. The Orinoco River waters the southern slopes of the mountains, the plains and Guyana Plateau, along with 436 branches. Orinoco, before the source of the Brazilian border to the north, then towards the east leads to a large delta. It is poured into the Atlantic Ocean. The length of this route is 2736 km. Maracaibo is the largest lake in Latin America and it is 121 km wide and 230 km long. Its surface area is 13.000 km2.

Climate

A tropical climate prevails in Venezuela. In the northeast, most of the year, relatively cold and dry alizeler work. The temperature varies depending on the height. The low coastal and river valleys in the inner region are hot and humid. High plots are usually mild in the daytime, cold at night.

The temperature is about 24 ° C up to a height of 800 m on average. It ranges from 10 to 27 ° C at altitudes of 800 to 2000 m. Above 2000 m, it is 18 ° C. The annual rainfall in the Paraguana Peninsula is 508 mm. The annual rainfall in South Maracaibo Plains and the Orinoco Delta is about 2032 mm. The central valley between the highlands of Guyana Plateau and the mountains in the north receives moderate rainfall. There is a precipitation of 787 mm per year in Caracas.

Natural Resources

About 40% of Venezuela is covered with forest. On the lower slopes of Maracaibo, on the lower slopes of Cardillera de Mérida and on the southwest slopes of the highlands of Guyana, there are jungles (frequent forest). More than 1800 m in the forests gradually sparse place on the grass. In the high foothills of the Andes, there are paramó vegetation consisting of alpine-type small shrubs and lichens. Orinoco has evergreen trees with leaves along the banks of the rivers in the lowlands. The Orinoco delta is often covered with mangrove bushes. The major wild animals found in the country are wild bovine, jaguar, puma, bear, deer, tapir and monkey. In Venezuela, oil, iron and gold are extracted. It ranks fifth in the world in oil production.

Population and Social Life

Three-quarters of the people of Venezuela, with a population of 20,188,000, live in cities. The major cities are the capital city of Caracas (2,265,874), Maracaibo, Barquisimeto and Valencia.

Of the population, 69% are hybrids, 20% are whites (Spanish, Portuguese and Italian), 9% are black and 2% are natives. Although hybrids constitute a majority, whites dominate social and cultural life. Whites earn most of their income by trading. Most hybrids and blacks work in agriculture or are workers. Hybrids are scattered throughout the country; whites were collected in cities. Most blacks live on the north coast. The tribes are usually found in the south or on the border with Colombia.

96% of Venezuelans are Catholics. According to the 1961 Constitution, Catholicism is the official religion of the country. Approximately 2% of the population is Protestant. There are small Muslim and Jewish communities in big cities. The inhabitants of the jungles and South Venezuela are pagans.

Education is free and compulsory until 14 years of age. 86% of the population is literate. The main collections are in Caracas, Maracaibo and Mérida. Almost everyone speaks Spanish, the official language. English is used as a second language among businessmen. Portuguese and Italian are the mother tongue for a significant part of the immigrants. The locals speak their own tribal language.

Political Life

Venezuela is a federal region, a federal republic consisting of two federal countries and 20 islands and some islands in the Caribbean. The president appoints the state administrators. The National Congress puts all the laws. The president is elected for five years by the direct public vote and cannot be chaired in successive periods. The Congress consists of a senate and a National Assembly. Each state chooses two senators, deputies are proportional to the population. National congressional elections are held every five years. Voting is compulsory for 18 years and older except for prisoners and soldiers. Venezuela is a member of the United Nations and the United States.

Economy

The Venezuelan economy is largely dependent on petroleum products. Oil constitutes 95% of exports and 30% of non-real GDP. Oil industry, iron mining, steel production and other basic industries are under the control of the government. Venezuela exports very few agricultural products. Imports food and timber. Since the production of consumables is very expensive, it has a limited domestic market. manufacturing, mainly food, tobacco, textile, paper and plastic industries. Half of the construction sector is in the hands of the private sector. The main plants grown are coffee, rice, fruits and sugar. The government is making efforts to increase agricultural products. From outside the machine takes the means of transport, chemicals and food products.

The transportation network in the heavily populated Maracaibo and the mountainous regions in the north is quite developed. The express highways connect to the ports of Caracas, Valencia, La Guaria and Puerto Cabello. The length of the roads is 100.571 km and approximately 33.188 km of it is covered with asphalt. Important railways are between Puerto Cabello and Barquisimeto, and between the Ciuadad Guyana and the iron mines in Cerro Bolivar. Oil pipelines extend from main wells to ports and important cities.

Venezuela trade with the United States, United Germany and Japan most. In addition, it tries to increase its commercial relations with neighboring Latin American countries. He is a member of the Latin American Free Trade Association and one of the founders of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

 

Peru

Historical

Because of the lack of written and recorded documents about the history of Peru before the Spanish period, the information is very weak. According to the results of the historical studies, the first inhabitants of the Peruvian territory were nomadic hunters and fishermen who crossed the Bosphorus and crossed the Pacific Ocean. BC in Peru. 1200 years, M.S. Until 1532, various civilizations came and went. The last of these periods, known as Chavin (Şöven), Classical, Chimu and İnka, is the most influential in the continent and in the country.

The Spanish first came to the country in 1531 through Francisco Pizarro. After that, Lima became the center of the governors in Peru. The Spanish administration, which has settled and gained strength in South America, has delayed Peru’s independence. In 1821, Argentine Jose de San Martin captured the land of Peru with the forces he had gathered. The forces under the command of Simon Bolivar and Antonio J. de Sucre defeated the Spaniards. After the capture of Callao in 1826, Peru declared its independence. Thus the Spanish Empire on the American continent collapsed.

Until 1846, political and political struggles emerged in the country. First, in 1822 the congress adopted a constitution and in 1823 Jose de la Riva Agüero became the first president of the country. Between 1879-84 he attacked Chile, Peru and Bolivia and captured Tarapaca, Tacna and Arica. After a struggle that lasted for many years, a 1929 agreement ended the dispute. According to the treaty, all regions outside the Arica region were returned to Peru. With a military coup in 1968, President Femando Belaunde Terry was dismissed. Until the military government continued until 1974, oil, banking, mining and fishing were nationalized.

After a hiatus of 12 years, Peru returned to democratic life in 1980. F. B. Terry was brought back to the Presidency. The new government abandoned the socialist system and brought the liberal system to the country. The country’s economy has recovered from the deadlock and returned to normal. There were some conflicts in Ecuador’s border in 1981, but it closed quickly. After that, Mao başlacu leftist terrorists started to make incidents in the country. In 1982 and 1983, these acts of terror which were accelerated were mostly against the US. In 1985, Alan Garcia Perez, who came to power, tried to suppress the actions of the crime. In 1990, Alberto Tujimori, who won the elections, quickly increased the number of leftists. On April 5, 1992, President Alberto Fujimori made a civilian coup and disbanded the congress and established a state of emergency and reconstruction. On November 13, 1992, a failed assassination attempt was made to President Alberto. Elections for the newly formed Democratic Constituent Congress were held on 22 November 1992, and the parties that supported President Alberto gained a absolute majority. Meanwhile, Guzman, the leader of the Light Road Guerrilla organization, was captured. Guzman was responsible for the death of 22,500 people in the guerrilla war that started in 1980 and was sentenced to life imprisonment. Despite this, confusion continues in the country.

Physical Structure

The area of ??Peru is approximately 1.285.216 km2. It is the third largest country of the South American continent with its vast territory. It is adjacent to Ecuador in the north, Colombia in the northeast, and Brazil, Bolivia and Chile in the east. West is covered with the Pacific Ocean. The Andes Mountains stretching from the northwest to the southeast divide the country into three main regions: the coastal zone, the Sierra region and the Martana region.

Approximately 2240 km long and ranging from 16 to 64 km, the coastal area occupies 11% of the territory of Peru. The height of the region can range from 1525 m above sea level. The most mountainous region of the country, Sierra, is approximately 340 km wide and an average 3500 m high. Huascaran Mountain in the region is 6768 m and is the highest point of the country. The peaks of the mountains, which have a height above 5000 m in the Sierra region, are constantly covered with snow. The Sierra region constitutes 33% of the country. Volcanic events are also seen in the region. El Misti is a known volcanic. Mantana, which is the largest region in the country, covers almost 56% of the surface area. The region is the region where the southern slopes of the Andes and the plateau of the Upper Amozon basin are covered with forests.

The major rivers of the country originate from the Sierra region and are concentrated in the region of Amozon. Important rivers of the country; Maranon, Huallaga, Apurimac, Urubamba, Ucayali, Napo, Yavari, Putumayo, Madre de Dios and Amozon, which is the longest of the Amozon River is about 3700 km.

There are also small rivers. Almost all of these rivers are poured into Lake Titicaca. This lake is located on the border of Bolivia. It is the widest lake in the Andes region and has a length of around 160 km. Lake Titicaca is 3810 m above sea level and is the highest lake in the world.

Climate

The coastal zone has a moderate climate. However, the Peru Cold Water Flow significantly lowers the temperature of the region. The Lima region is the driest region with an average annual rainfall of 41 mm. Regardless of the area, the area has high humidity in terms of humidity. This amount of moisture is 87% in Lima.

The Sierra region has a generally dry climate. The air temperature varies according to height and is generally cool. For example, at 3050 m high Hurancayo Mountain air temperature (-4 to 24 ° C) varies. The day-night temperatures in the country are very different because it is located close to the equator. April is more precipitation months.

The Montana region is hot and humid. The temperature in Iquitos is around 21 ° C. There are severe tropical precipitation and the average annual precipitation is about 3302 mm.

Natural Resources

The coastal zone is largely without trees. Only in the valleys of the North American legumes, bushes, Australian eucalyptus (malaria) and various fruit trees grow. It is also found in abundance of cactus and desert plants. As an animal, there are more lizards, spiders, scorpions, snails and rye (a kind of large spider, taredula).

In the Sierre region, there are many green areas and wooded areas. It grows mostly in evergreen trees and eucalyptus (malaria) type trees. There is also plenty of cocaine trees. More in the region; grows animals such as lama, alpaca, guanaco (a large animal without a camel), vikunya and chinçula (a similar animal). The Sierra region is rich in bird species. Red-breasted juniper (robin), flycatcher, finch, partridge, flycatcher, wild duck, goose and vulture are common birds in the region.

The vegetation and animals of the Montana region are almost the same as those in the Amozon basin. As a tree grows in abonosis, mahogany, cedar, rubber and coriander. The quinine is obtained from the garment. Vanilla, sapaina, fibrous plants are quite. Grows in flower type as begonia, bag flower and orchid. There are also savannas, shrubs, rough-veined plants and stunted trees. Puma, jagar, tapir, crusted lizard, pessary, anteater, maritime, crocodile, sea turtle, snake and monkey are available in ample amounts. Parrot, flamingo and butterfly species are quite large. Moth, fly and mosquito are millions.

The country’s mineral resources are quite rich. Copper is the most important mineral variety. Silver, lead, zinc, iron, cadmium, selenium, tin, gold, tungsten, antimony, bismuth, tellurium, coal, barium, salt, limestone, marble and gypsum are important minerals. Oil deposits are also available in northern regions.

Peru is also rich in surface waters. The existing three drainage systems contain more than 50 large and small rivers. All these rivers are separated branches of the Amozon River, the main source. The length of the Amozon River is approximately 3700 km. Lake Titicaca on the Bolivian border is 3810 m high above sea level and has a length of about 160 km.

Population and Social Life

The population of Peru is approximately 22,950,000. 73% of the population lives in cities. The population density is 14. Indians, which constitute the majority among ethnic groups in the country, contain 45% of the population. Almost 40% of the population is hybrid. The rest is made up of Negro and Asian groups. The majority of the white population is of Spanish origin.

The official languages ??are Spanish and Quechua native language. Two-thirds of Indians, who make up the majority of the population, use Quechua. They usually live in the Sierra area. Lake Titicaca and the remaining Indians living in South Sierra speak with the Aymara language. Hybrids and whites speak Spanish.

The majority of the population is Catholic. There have been some different classes in terms of race, economic level, social life and culture level among the people. The majority of Indians are poor people. They live on hunting and agriculture.

Literacy rate is about 72%. After the education and training law in 1972, primary school compulsory and other schools were released. Many private schools are available. There are 30 universities in the country. The most famous of them; National Education University in Lima, National Engineering University and San Marcos University.

In the people of Peru, the production of more ceramic ware is important in terms of handicrafts. Toy lama making, various rugs and carpet weaving, colored fabric making and llama, alpaca and vikunyu (a kind of llama) knitting of wool are the main branches of art.

The most developed city in the country is Lima. Other important cities are Callao, Arequipa, Trujillo, Iquitos, Cuzco and Huancayo.

Political Life

Its administrative system is a central republic based on the principles of parliamentary democracy. According to the 1980 Constitution of Peru, the president and two co-chairs are elected by popular vote. The President appoints the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. The President must take at least 50% of the votes to be elected.

The legislative power is at the congress. The congress has two councils. The Senate has 60 members and the National Assembly has 180 members and is subject to election. Presidential and congress elections are held every 5 years. 18-year-olds can vote. It is administratively divided into one province and 24 regions. He is a member of the United Nations.

Economy

Peru’s commercial economy is largely based on minerals, agricultural products and industrial products and fisheries. The main agricultural products grown in the country are cotton, sugar beet, coffee, rice, potato, beans, corn, barley and tobacco.

Peru is a very rich country in terms of underground resources. The main minerals of the country are: copper, silver, molybdenum, lead, oil, zinc, iron, cadmium, tin, gold, coal, barium, salt, marble, gypsum, limestone, tellurium, antimony, tungsten, selenium and bismuth. The most important industries in the country are the fish and steel industries. More sardines are hunted on the coast. Another source of income in the country is forest products such as timber, rubber, quinine, dark red rosewood and Brazilian chestnut.

Peru has a very commercial income with its minerals and prepared fish dishes. The main products of export are copper, fish dishes, coffee, iron, sugar, zinc, silver, lead, cotton, gold and wool. At the beginning of 1993, foreign trade reached $ 3.3 billion. Exports to Japan and the United States more.

Machinery, foodstuffs, fuels, oils, non-metallic minerals, chemical products and steel are the main import goods. Imports are mostly done by USA and Germany.

Peru is one of the countries of the Andean Common Market. Apart from Peru, the market, including Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Bolivia, introduced a customs exemption and a common external tax system among member states.

Peru’s transportation network developed after the 19th century. The length of the railways is 3472 km. Of the 69,942 km roads, only 11% are asphalt. Airways are available from 22 airports.