The first settlers in Canada are considered to be Indians (in the southern part) and Eskimos (in the northern part), crossing the Bering Strait, arriving in North America. In the sixteenth century, Jacques Cartier discovered the territory of Canada. Cartier entered Saint-Laurent Bay between 1534 and 1536, traveled up to present-day Montreal and Québec, and found Canada and included it in France. Since there was no mine in the country at that time, the colonization movement was left unfinished and the Canadian side was frequented only by Morino hunters and fur traders. But the main purpose of the French rulers was to develop hunting, forest and mining operations, to supply the raw materials that France needed, and to spread Christianity through missionaries.

In 1629, the British seized Canada in 1632 France took back. Each year, migrants and mercenaries volunteered to support the settlement in the country.

In the eighteenth century, Canada was left to the United Kingdom by a treaty with England. The British regime was influential in the country between the years 1763-1837 with the British immigrants moving rapidly to Canada.

After the Treaty of Versailles, which ratified the US’s independence in 1783, Canada was flooded with supporters of England. In 1791, England divided Saint Laurent’s lands into two, turning the southeastern sides into French, and the northwest sides into the English state. In both states, the parliamentary regime was established, but the British in general held management in trade.

With the uprising in Upper Canada and Lower Canada in 1837, Europeans allowed the establishment of a government that gave them more say in the administration of the country. In 1867, the British treaty of North America combined Ontario, Québer, Nauvelle-Ecorse and Nouveau-Brunswich.

England’s participation in the First World War between 1914-1918, led to the war in Canada. Canada, a British colony, provided equipment and supplies to the Entente States.

In 1926, at the imperial conference in London, Britain and its dominions were given the status equality. With the 1931 West Minster Statute, Kanda became an independent state. When World War II broke out in 1939, Canada declared war against Germany and emerged strengthened by this war. A treaty made at the beginning of 1989 raised customs between the US and Canada.

Physical Structure

Almost half of Canada consists of the Canadian Shield called the Laurentian plateau. This region of the continent is composed of very old and hard rocks covering an area of ??4,568,889 square kilometers. This region spreads around the Hudson Bay as a shield and extends from the coast of the Labrador and runs along the St.Lawrence River and the Huron and Superior Lakes. After entering the US territory, it passes between the lakes in the northwest and ends at the Arctic Ocean near the mouth of the Mackenzie River. This region is likened to a plate because its edges are higher than the Hudson Bay which forms the middle part. In the south-east, the Kalkan region is abruptly elevated along the St.Lawrence River and Bay from the view of the plain.

St.Lawrence District: Located in the southeast of Kalkan, this region includes southern Ontario in the form of a peninsula and a slightly rippling area to the southwest of the city of Québec. In the Huron Lake, from the Bruce peninsula to the southeast extension, the region is covered with a hard limestone layer. The Niyagara Waterfall is famous for its cleavage of the layer by the Niyagara River. Located between Kalkan and Kanda Appalachies, the St.Lawrence Plains are covered with sea in prehistoric times. Today they look like a sedimentary plain. However, this is not the case of Montreregian Hills, which are eight in number, rising to the east of Montreal. The plains are separated from the Ontario peninsula by an extension to the southeast of Kalkan. This extension is cut by the St.Lawrence River, near the mouth of Lake Ontario.

The Appalachia region: part of the Appalachian mountain system, which includes the eastern border of Québec, the New Foundland island and the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. In the north between the Canadian Shield and the hard rocky terrain in Nova Scotia, the Maritime provinces form a basin.

Inner plains: The triangular section on the west of the Canadian Shield is an extension of the large plains in the US. These inner plains have passed through different geological stages. The first elevation into the plain is the Manitoba height of 490 m (Duch, Riding and Porcupine Mountains) and the second elevation is the Missouri Coteau at 910 m in Saskat Chewan. The accumulation of old ice lakes has led to the loss of the plains. The plains in Saskatchewon and Albetro were carved deeply by the rivers. In the southern part of the region there is the famous Prairie region.

Rivers and lakes: All the rivers born in Canada pour their waters into the sea. Most of these rivers are used both as transportation and energy sources. The most important rivers of the country are the rivers that originate from the east of the rocky mountains, pouring into the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Hudson. From these rivers, the length of the Mackenzian is 3700 km and is poured into the Arctic Ocean. Since this river is frozen in the eight months of the year, transportation is not available. Although the Saint Laurent River is shorter, it is the most important transportation way of the country. It emerges from Lake Ontario, causing a number of lakes to emerge and is poured into the Atlantic Ocean. The length of the estuary which takes place in the sea reaches 40 km.

When it comes to lakes, the size of large and small lakes in the Canadian territory is 250 thousand. The largest of these are Lake Ayı 31.080 km2, Büyük Esir Gölü 28.919 km2, Lake Winnipeg is 24.530 km2. The Saing Laurent lakes series is located between the US and Canada.


There are great differences in climate between regions. In the northern regions, winters are long and cold, and in the west and southeast, they are softer. The average temperature in July is 16 ° C. The most important factors affecting the climate are the distance and proximity to the sea and the North Pole. In the North Pole belt, for example in Euroka, the average winter temperature is -37 ° C. In summer, however, it increases to + 6 ° C. Rain snow can also vary depending on the distance from the sea.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Canada’s land and vegetation are highly dependent on the climate. The forest belt extends from the Mackenzie River to the southern shores of Hudson Bay and the Ungaua peninsula. Only tundralar is found on the infertile soils of the northern part of this belt.

It is possible to find all kinds of wild animals and birds in these forests. Polar bears and musk cows live in the poles. Seals have seals, walruses and whales. Further south, deer, black and grizzly bears, wolves, foxes, beavers and other fur animals are seen.

Mines: Canada has just started to use its vast underground wealth. The most important mines are oil. The other minerals extracted are nickel, iron, copper, zinc, gold, lead and uranium. Canada has long been the world’s largest nickel-producing country.

Population and Social Life

Canada has a population of over 27 million people. The regions with the highest population density are the sea states in the east. Ontario and Québec; then the more western regions (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta) and the Gregorian colony. The population in the north is rare.

Canada is a highly urbanized country, with over two-thirds of the population living in cities. The majority of the population constitutes two major ethnic groups: British-born Canadians, British, Irish, and Scottish (43%) and French-born Canadians (31%). The other part of the population comes from Europe with recent migrations: Germans, Ukrainians, Italians, Hungarians, etc. Indians and Eskimos constitute only 1% of the whole population. The proportion of urban people who accept English as their mother tongue is greater than the proportion of British citizens. According to the statistics, most of the Canadians who speak bilingual live in the regions where the population is of French origin.

Political Life

Canada is governed by the Republic. Its Constitution was adopted in 1867. Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, is also the queen of Canada. There is a governor general appointed by him in Ottawa. The Parliament is composed of the Senate and the House of Commons. The Senate is composed of 102 senators elected by the Prime Minister’s recommendation. The House of Commons consists of 264 deputies, elected for a period of five years, according to the rate of population from each state. Every Canadian citizen has the right to vote in the constituency from the age of 18 onwards.

Canada is a federation of 10 states and two territorial territories.


Canada has extremely rich natural resources. The fertile clumps spread over large areas, the forest belts surrounding the country, the rich fishing areas and the mineral deposits are very diverse. These sources provide the necessary raw material to the industry.

Agriculture: 7,8% of the land is suitable for agriculture and 10% of the workforce is employed in this area. All kinds of crops from wheat to sugar cane, from tobacco to vegetables and fruits are grown in the country.

Canada is one of the most wheat-growing countries. Wheat exports second place in the world after the United States. Other cultivated products include barley, oats, rye. Canada is among the most apple growing countries. Besides the apple, fruits such as pears and peaches are of great importance.

Animal husbandry: Animal husbandry is an important source of income due to the large number of pastures and pastures in Canada. Exports milk and meat products. The most grown animal is cattle. The number of small ruminants and horses is decreasing.

Since fur culture is developed in the country, close to 2000 farms such as mink, fox, otter and shinny are grown.

Forestry: Forests covering approximately 48% of the country’s land are of great importance in the forest industry. However, although only 1% of the workforce is employed, the forest industry has a great contribution to exports. The majority of the products obtained in Québec, where most of the timber resources are found, are used for making pulp. It is made of pine trees that grow in British Columbia, and it is made of pine wood. More than 10 million tonnes of newspaper paper is produced per year in Canada. This is half of world production. Most of this is exported to the US.

Fishing: Fishing is very developed due to the fact that Canada is surrounded by the great oceans to the west and east and there are large lakes in the country. Among fish exporting countries, it ranks third after Japan and Norway. Large, modern fishing fleet, fish, fish, fish, herbs and sardines.

Industry: Canada has been one of the world’s largest industrial forces with factors such as population growth, the abundance of natural resources, the availability of energy resources and the flow of foreign capital to the country.


Costa Rica


When Christopher Columbus came out to a small island near the shores of the Caribbean on September 18, 1502, he named it bir Costa Rica ında which means çıktı Rich Coast Krist because of the gold deposits here.

Today’s natives of the country are Spain, who migrated here from Guatemala in the sixteenth century. Since there were no Indians and African slaves here, the Spaniards committed their own territory. The colonial era of Costa Rica was in poverty and misery.

Costa Rica, which declared its independence on September 15, 1821, was thus saved from the Spanish yoke. Until 1838, his foreign policy was tied to the Central American Union. In 1838 he left the unit.

In 1842, the government of Braulio Carilol was overthrown by General Francisco Morasan to form the Central American Association. But soon after he was killed, he was killed. After that, a 7-year period of anarchy began in the country. In 1849, former President Mora came to work again. The scheme provided and made reforms. After that, in Costa Rica, which changed half a dozen presidents from 1859 to 1870, a strong government was formed by Tomas Guordia after 1879, and in December 1871 a constitution was issued.

In the nineteenth century, the economy began to develop in the country. For the pressure of America and for various reasons, the heads of state have changed continuously.

Under the leadership of Refael Calderon Guordia in 1940, Costa Rica’s relations with the United States improved. When the Japanese attacked Peal Harbor, he and the United States declared war on Japan. She helped in the defense of the Panama Canal. In 1944, Costa Rica became a member of the United Nations, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the IMF.

As a result of the internal turmoil in the elections held on 8 February 1948, José Figueres made a revolution, took over the administration and put in force the old constitution. In 1949 Ulate Blanca was elected president. To date, the country has experienced different presidents period. After 1949, the Army did not interfere in our administration. Costa Rica, which adopts democracy, is one of the best American countries to implement this regime.

Physical Structure

The surface shapes of the country are examined in three main sections. Behind the coast of Karaib Karaib, there is a narrow and alluvial land. In this area, the northwest-southeastern elevation belt with Cordillera de Guanacaste to the north and Cordillera de Talamana to the south; to the west of the ridge belt, between the Nicaya and Osa peninsula, the coast of the Great Ocean.

Elevations start at the west of Lake Nicaragua. Irazu 3432 m and Turrilaba 3328 m form the highest volcanoes in the country. Talamanca Mountain range of 2740 m high hills are found.

The eastern coasts of the country are indentations and protrusions, while the west coasts are numerous. Coco Island, 480 km away from the west coast, belongs to Costa Rica. The hillsides that descend from the mountainous interior to the coastal plains are quite steep.


In the coastal plains where the East Alize winds dominate, the humid equatorial climate prevails, while the central parts are warm and the climates dominate in high places. But the cold is not violent. The average temperature in the coast is between 25 and 32 ° C, in the middle between 21 and 27 ° C is between. In high regions it does not exceed 10 ° C. No snow in the country. The average annual rainfall ranges between 3100 and 6350 mm.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Marshes and forests occupy about a third of the country. North Caribbean coasts and the Pacific Ocean coasts are covered with tropical forests. Oak and pine trees are found in the forests. In the regions above the altitude of 2400 m, forests sparse and replaced with grasslands and pastures. A wooded area covers the eastern parts of the Nicoya peninsula.

The most common wild animals in the country include tapir, arrow hedgehog and crocodile.

Mines: The territory of the country is not rich in minerals. A small amount of gold is removed.

Population and Social Life

The population of the country is 3.161.000 and this population is made up of white-born Spanish whites, Negroes and Indians. In the country where population growth is high, a large part of the population is gathered in the metropolitan area. Only 34% of the people live in cities. The important settlements are San José, Alajuela, Heredia and Cartago.

The official language is Spanish and correspondence with English is maintained in some state affairs. The vast majority of the people are dependent on the Catholic sect of Christianity. There are also Jews and Protestants.

Education in the country is free. Primary education is compulsory between the ages of 6-12, and the number of illiterates is low. There are two universities in Costa Rica.

Political Life

The country is headed by the head of state. There are only 57 members in the country. There is an election for the Assembly every 4 years. Voting is compulsory.


Agriculture: Since Costa Rica’s economy is based on agriculture, 55% of the population is engaged in agriculture. For example, in Central, coffee, dairy products, sugar, beans and potatoes are obtained. Most produced coffee and bananas are exported to the outside. Livestock is developed and the herds of cattle are found in the Guanaceste region. It is the country that exports the most dairy products of Central America.

Industry: The industry is undeveloped in the country, and the small-scale industry includes sugar refineries, fertilizer plants, pesticides and consumables.

Trade: Costa Rica sells coffee, bananas and milk outdoors, and buys industrial products from the outside. In commercial relations, the country’s economy depends on the USA. Although the balance of external payments has given a deficit, the economy of the country is progressing rapidly compared to that of other Central American countries.

In addition, various places with natural beauties and artifacts from the Spanish civilization attract the tourists and become a good source of income for the country’s economy.

Transportation: Transportation, approximately 35.357 km of highways, is provided with 1500 km of railways connecting the two shores. Highways are inadequate and neglected. 15% is covered with asphalt. Puertolimon, Puontarenas, Golfito are the main ports. Juan Santa Maria near San José is the country’s only international airport.



The United States is a federal state consisting of 50 states on the North American continent. The US homeland neighbors are Canada in the north and Mexico in the south. The official establishment date is July 4, 1776.

United States of America; east of the Atlantic from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean is up to 4,500 km wide.

The United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, has a surface area of ??more than 9 million square kilometers. Alaska is northwest of Canada. Hawaii is located in the Pacific Ocean, 3,000 kilometers from the United States on the continent. Alaska is the largest in the 50 states. Located on the south side of the country is Texas second.


There are many different climates in the United States. Since the mountain ranges on the east and west coasts prevent the oceans from influencing the climate of the interior, the continental climate prevails in all over the country except those coastlines.

Since the middle parts are very high, there is not much temperature difference between the seasons. The Appalachian Mountains do not constitute an important obstacle. Although the central regions have low pressure in the summer season, the humid weather from the ocean is not obstructed by the Appalachians. On the western side, rainfall is less.

The southern part of the strip, which is coastal to the Atlantic Ocean, is relatively rainy and temperate, although the north is cooler and winters are very severe.

The tropical climate is dominated by the southern part of Mexico, which is open and flat. Here, summers are warm and winters are mild. There is plenty of rainfall in all seasons. Although the Alaska coastline has a climate affected by the sea, there are very severe temperatures in the interior.

Political Structure

Form of government: The United States is a federal association of 50 states. The center of the national government is the District of Colombia. The Constitution determines the outlines of the national government. Indicates its activities with the powers. Each state that has its own constitution and powers is responsible for other affairs. Each state; In terms of management, the city is divided into towns, towns and villages. Each state has its own elected governments.

Government: In the United States, the government is the people’s government; established by the people. Members of Congress, president, state officials, towns and cities are elected by the people. Judges are also directly elected by the public or appointed by the elected authorities. Public officials may be dismissed if they do not perform their duties well or violate the law severely.

The Constitution guarantees the rights and freedoms of persons. These rights and freedoms are stated in the first ten amendments to the constitution which were added to the constitution in 1791 and called the Human Rights Declaration.

The Constitution has divided the powers of the government into three: the legislature, which includes both sides of the congress, the executive, the Senate and the House of Representatives, and the judiciary, particularly the high court. The Constitution restricts the competence of each and prevents one to have more than one power.

In state governments, the system is almost identical to the federal government system.

In every state there is a governor at the head of the executive force. State governments look at jobs such as protection of order, education of children and young people, road construction. The federal government deals with issues of national and international concern and more than one state. Laws affecting the daily life of citizens are implemented by the police in cities and towns. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, known as the FBI; the criminals who cross the state borders investigate and follow those who violate federal law.

Federal Government: The President of the United States is elected for a four-year term by a general election. The selected President may be selected at the end of the term. The President is born in America and must have at least thirty-five years of age. It costs $ 200,000 a year, plus an additional $ 50,000 for costs; but they pay income tax on their sum. It also takes $ 100,000 for travel and non-taxable as guest hospitality.

If the President vetoes or refuses to sign a bill approved by Congress; A decision taken by two-thirds of the convention with two-thirds of the vote overrides this veto and the bill becomes law. President; appoints federal judges, ambassadors, hundreds of government officials. In the event of death, resignation or permanent injury of the President, the vice-chairman shall hold the position until the election.
A President who has not completed his term of office under the auspices of the United States Constitution may only be dismissed on the basis of sufficient evidence and with a two-thirds majority of the members in the House of Representatives, on the basis of sufficient evidence. To date, only one American President has been charged with abuse of office. He was acquitted in 1868 and was acquitted. In 1974, however, the election campaign was attended by a large number of high-ranking officials, including President Richard Nixon. In this incident, called Watergate, Nixon resigned before going to court and was replaced by Gerard Ford.

Congress, which is the legislative branch; It consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senators are elected for 6 years and the members of the House of Representatives are elected for two years. Senators and Representatives can be re-elected as long as they want to be a candidate.

Fifty states send two senators to Congress. One-third of the Senate is elected every two years. The candidate must be thirty years of age to become a senator and must have been an American citizen at least nine years before his election.

The House of Representatives has 435 members. Each state has a certain number of members according to its population. The states are divided into equally populated electoral districts, and voters of each region elect a delegate to Congress. A member must be at least twenty-five years old and at least seven years old.

A bill must be approved by both the Senate and the House of Representatives in order to become a law.

Foreign policy: Since the establishment of the country, he has been the main speaker in the management of foreign policy. However, their powers are not unlimited. The commitments it has made must be confirmed by the Congress.

The United States has also participated in regional defense groups such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization of the United States of America (OAS) and other organizations supporting peace and development.

Population and Ethnicity

The population of the United States consists of many different elements. According to the 2006 census, there are 32 groups with a population of 1 million or more. The majority (81%) of the population is white and of European origin. This is followed by Latin American descent with 13%. 13% of the population is black. Most of these come from people who were forcibly brought to Africa in the time of the colonies, but most of them have migrated from Africa and the Caribbean in recent years. 4% of the population is of Asian origin and 1% of them is Native American.

US-led territories:

Puerto Rico, an island of 9000 square kilometers in the Caribbean Sea, is connected to the United States. The population of the United States is 3.410.000. They choose their governors and legislative councils themselves.

The Virgin Islands in the sea of ??Karaipler were purchased in 1917 from Denmark. One hundred thousand inhabitants of the island are citizens of the United States of America and they choose the senate, the governors and the only legislative body. There are fifty small islands in the Virgin Islands that hold 346 square kilometers.

Panama; The Panama Canal District, which is an eight-kilometer-long landmark on both sides of the canal, was under American control from 1904 to 1978, according to treaties between the two countries. In 1978, the leaders of the two countries signed a new treaty, which gave 65% of the region the control of Panama in December 31, 1989 and the rest in 2000.

The United States’ responsibility for the defense and operation of the channel was transferred to Panama in history.

American schools in Turkey

Private American Robert College, Istanbul
Private Izmir American High School, Izmir
Private Tarsus American High School, Mersin
Uskudar American High School, Istanbul

Turkey and the United States, although touted as allies in the military field for decades because of NATO, Turkey has remained in effect in many areas of the United States. In addition, the two countries signed several bilateral agreements.

United States, has supported Turkey’s EU process and the vulnerability has been found in print in the EU. However, relations have received major injuries due to the United States’ Kurdish policy, allegedly secretly supporting the PKK, and finally invading Iraq.




Cuban natives; The first inhabitants of Cuba were Guanahatabey and Kiboni Indians who came to the island from South America. Taynolar (Antil Aravakları) settled in the island later became agriculturalists and a peaceful people who reached a certain level in making pots and tools. It was about 80-100 thousand.

The first permanent settlement in Cuba, where Christopher Columbus first explored (October 1492) in his first voyage (October 1492), was established in 1511. The oppression and exploitation of colonists, epidemics, hunger and immigration. century, the peace and order provided in the region along with the colony’s population has reached 50 thousand.At the beginning of the regular voyages from Spain increased the commercial and strategic importance of Havana. In order to close the labor shortage that emerged with the end of the slave trade in 1865, the Mexican Indians and the Chinese began to be brought to the island as a contracted laborer.

Since the end of the 19th century, Spain’s inability to provide the necessary labor, capital, machinery, technical skills, and markets for sugar production and exports led to a gradual weakening of its political and economic ties with Cuba. started to gain power in production and trade. The fact that the Spaniards did not compromise the demand for autonomy on the island and further increased the taxes caused the Ten Years War to start (1868 – 1878). In 1895, when the Cuban poet and journalist Jose Marti, in exile, brought together political organizations in exile, a war of independence, based on the guerrilla tactics, began. The United States of America, which is active in its economy, led to the war against Spain by using the sinking of the ship Maine ship anchored in Havana harbor.

The independence of Cuba, envisaged in the framework of the Paris Treaty signed after the end of the Spanish – American War (1898), entered into force on January 1, 1899 under the invasion of the United States. After receiving the right to have a say in Cuba’s internal and external relations and to establish a naval base at Guantanamo Bay, he withdrew his troops from the island. It has opened the way for a form of government based on social injustice. In particular, the actions of the Cuban clans of African descent for political rights and better job opportunities have been hardly suppressed. In 1933, Fulgencio Batista, who had overthrown Gerardo Machado with the support of the United States in 1933, left his mark on the Cuban leadership for many years as the most famous dictator. In addition, the rise in the unemployment rate, the fact that the vast majority of the population remained in poverty, and the economy was increasingly exogenous led to an effective opposition to the Batista administration.

Fidel Castro, who led one of the groups targeting the dictatorship in the 1950s, was imprisoned for a period due to a failed raid on the Moncada Barracks (1953). Castro in Mexico in 1955 after the 26th July Movement launched in Argentina, the organization, including the revolutionary revolutionary Che Guevara in December 1956 in Cuba, the guerrilla movement launched in Cuba in time, taking support from other groups Batista’ya troops are important After the dictator Fulgencio Batista left Cuba on January 1, 1959, a new leadership began in Havana with a force of a thousand people under Castro. (Cuban Revolution)
Fidel Castro, who gained the support of a large part of the government as a result of deep-rooted land reform, gained weight with the alliance he established with the Cuban Socialist People’s Party. Decapitation accelerated Castro’s close relationship with the USSR and turned towards a socialist line. In the 1960s, the increasing military spending due to the pressure of the United States led to shock in the economy. At the same time, Cuba was pushed to diplomatic loneliness because of its support for the revolutionary movements in Latin America. I.

In the 1970s, the party and the state were stabilized in the economy with the improvement in the economy. In the meantime, Castro’s leadership in the administration was strengthened. sending unresponsive to the invasion of Afghanistan by the USSR, an unconnected country, caused some reactions in the Third World. The fact that the United States of America and the United States of America intervened in Grenada between the 120,000 Cubans who migrated to Cuba after the permission of the Cuban regime to travel to the United States in 1980 made the relations between the two countries even more tense. The wave of change surrounding it did not affect Cuba politically.

Cuba was driven to an economic impasse due to the help of the Soviet aid cut after the Cold War, and turned to tourism investments, and limited private investments were allowed. In this period, a limited improvement was observed in relations with the United States. In July 2006, Fidel Castro temporarily handed over his presidential duties to his brother, Raul Castro.


Cuban culture in terms of Spanish and African influence in terms of the historical traces of the United States due to historical ties with the North American sports are popular among the public. Baseball, including basketball, volleyball, athletics and boxing in Cuba, widely played and successful in international competitions sports

Cuban cuisine; It is a mixture of spanish and caribbean in general. The meat, seafood, corn and black beans are consumed a lot.

Cuban literature has a rich and qualified heritage especially in the field of poetry. century poet Jose Marti and Nicolás Guillén who lived in the 20th century is one of the important Cuban literati. The famous song Guantanamera is the work of the revolutionary hero of Cuba, Jose Marti. The song is Nicholas Guillen’s.

Managerial Conditions

Cuba has a socialist state structure based on one-party sovereignty. The weight of the Cuban Communist Party (PCC) in state administration has been clearly stated in the 1976 Constitution. The government uses the National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional de Poder Popular).


It is located at the beginning of the Crab Cycle and at the entrance of the Gulf of Mexico. It covers more than 3,715 islands and islands, as well as the main island with the same name. The nearest neighbor, Haiti, 77, Bahamas 140, Jamaica 146, United States 180, Mexico 210 and Cayman Islands 240 km away. The second largest island of the country is the island of Juventud The highest point is Turquino Peak (2005 m) .Total land area is 110,861 km². Annual average temperature is 26 C. It has a semi-tropical climate determined by two seasons. Hurricanes between September and October sometimes cause great destruction. The total length of the coasts is 3735 km and there is a 29 km land border with the United States naval base at Guantanamo Bay.


Cuba is a very complex population of the past centuries, different ethnic communities settled in the island in the past centuries.In the pre-colombian period between 80-100 thousand island natives, today, only a few families living on the east end of the island remains. European and African people, 37%, whites, 11% of blacks and 1% of Chinese people. Chinese population in the 19th century, brought to the island for the railway and mining jobs are the grandchildren of China. Birth rate is 11.6 / 1000 .

Population: 11,382,820 (July 2006 data)
Population growth rate: 0.31% (2006 data)
Birth rate 11.6 births / 1000 people (2006 data)
Death rate 7.22 deaths / 1,000 people (2006 data)
Refugee rate: – 1.57 refugees / 1,000 inhabitants (2006 estimates)
Infant mortality rate: 6.22 deaths / 1,000 born infants (2006 estimate)
Life expectancy: Total population: 77.41 years
In males: 75.11 years
Women: 79.85 years (2006 data)
Average number of children: 1.66 children / 1 woman (2006 estimate)
Number of adults infected with HIV / AIDS: 0.10% (2003 data)
Number of HIV / AIDS – deaths: less than 200 (2003 data)
Nation: Cuban

Cuban economy is largely a state-controlled planned economy based on socialist principles. Although private sector investments have increased in the recent years, most of the production vehicles are operated by the state. In 1992, 80% of foreign trade was realized and the subsidies for agricultural production were subsidized. The US embargo was softened after the depressive period. However, after Soviet aid disappeared and trade relations deteriorated, the economy had deteriorated for a while, and then it moved from agriculture to industry. In the agricultural sector, where 21% of the workforce is employed, sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee and rice are important production and export items. Fishing and animal husbandry, which are particularly important in socialist regime, is one of the major production items. Thanks to the tourists coming from Turkey, tourism has become the driving force of the Cuban economy. China, Canada, Spain and the Netherlands are the biggest foreign trade partners of Cuba. The basis of trade is the nickel which has a significant share in the export items (6.4% of the world production) The GNP per capita is about $ 3,500 and the standard of living is still not brought to the level before 1990. The biggest supporter of petroleum is China.




Mexico is the main nation in North America that has since quite a while ago dated history. B.C. Towards the primary century, the Gulf locale, Oaxaca, the focal level, saw a very created culture and craftsmanship. This circumstance has influenced the introduction of the old Maya Empire. This domain extended from the seventh century as far as possible of the eighth century, from the Yucatan to Guatemala. Amid a similar period, different civic establishments sorted out among May and the ninth century in financial and social terms in Mayas created in Oaxaca, in focal level and on the Gulf drift. These are called traditional human advancements.

At that point came the Tula Tolteks which created from the ninth to the twelfth century. In any case, their progress has changed affected by the new clans. In 987, the Maya-Toltek blend was made and the new Maya Empire was established. Amid a similar period, the northern clans settled on the good country and entered the city life. Mexican clans from Aztlan established the city Tenochtitlon (Mexico) in 1325 and chose their first ruler 50 years after the fact. The Aztecs profited from between ancestral rivalry and built up a substantial domain that extended from 1430 to 1521. Just the Aztecs who bombed before the Michoacan Taraskas; They assumed control Totonaktası, Zopatri and Mixed.

The Spaniards exploited the Aztecs to catch the nation. In 1519, the Spanish ousted under Cortès and established the city of Veracruz. Mexico turned into the legislative head of Spain in 1535. The Spanish intrusion, expanding north and south, proceeded until the finish of seventeenth century. Christianity, frequently ruthless, battled with conventional religions and the indigenous development was demolished. In 1571, the Inquisition was built up in Mexico. In spite of the fact that it isn’t known during the 1519s, the indigenous populace, assessed to be 25 million, tumbled to 1,500,000 towards 1650. In spite of financial changes, the Spanish organization has turned out to be terrible for whites and also for local people and half breeds. In 1810 they made a move to oust the Spaniards from their nations. Toward the finish of a 11-year war of autonomy, in 1821 the King Naibine Cordoba Treaty was agreed upon. In 1824, autonomy was announced. Its autonomy was trailed by a time of 50 years of bedlam caused by local and remote wars. Because of the war with the United States amid the Santa Anna’s tyranny, the New Mexico, Texas, California was lost with the Treaty of Guadalupe in 1848. In 1855, the dissidents succeeded. Toward the finish of a common war, Juarez won the preservationists, yet they needed to dissipate outside obligation. France, Britain and Spain mediated. Juarez’s recommendations were dismissed by the Third Napoleon who needed to set up a Catholic domain for France in Latin America and attacked Mexico. Amid the long tyranny of Porfino Diaz (1876-1911) after Juarez’s administration, the economy created at the expense of social foul play and the abuse of indigenous workers. The liberal Madero, who dropped Diaz, neglected to stifle progressive developments and was slaughtered in 1913. Amidst turmoil, Carranza embraced the 1917 constitution and sought after an arrangement towards the general population. Under the administration of Obrago (1920-1924) the execution of agrarian change started. Because of the slaughter of this by a Catholic and the savage Catholic obstruction, an extremely strict and some of the time deadly strategy against the congregation started. The Lazoro Cardenasi pursued an arrangement of modernization by killing religious battles amid his Presidency (1934-1940). Extraordinary significance was given to industrialization after the Second World War.

Physical Structure

Mexico is an exceptionally sloping nation with the greater part of its property over 900 m above ocean level. Most mountains are an expansion of the mountains of America. The most ruling topographical scene of Mexico frames a high land extending from the northern outskirt to Tehvantepec, Berzah (to the stretched land). Past the Berzah is the rugged regions of Chiapas, which keep on focal America. Lower California, which is by and large rocky, establishes a third locale.

Three low-territory Mexico supplements the significant segments of landforms. It is the 200 km wide Yucatan promontory that reaches out to the biggest east and north. The second expansive marsh is the seaside plain of the Gulf, a continuation of the Texas beach front fields. This plain is wide in the north, narrowing towards the south close Veracruz, at that point all of a sudden developing the southern side of the Gulf of Mexico and achieving the limestone stage of the Yucatan Peninsula. The littlest and biggest influx of substantial marshes is the Pacific beach front plain. This is wide in the north, limits toward the south. From the eastern locale of Tehvantepec Berzah, the plain by and by ends up ceaseless and extends. The geology of Mexico contains high terrains, various bowls and mountains. The biggest of these is the focal level reaching out from the northern outskirt to the scope of Mexico City. This good country is encompassed by the Sierra Madre Oriental from the east and the Sierra Volconica Transversal Mountains from the south. Mountain extends on the level partition the ground into different bowls in the north, going from 900 to 1200 m in the south and 2150 to 2450 m in the south.

The western piece of the rugged landscape in southern Mexico is the Sierra Madre Del Sur, which frames a mountain framework with restricted valleys and not very many good country bowls. In the eastern piece of the island, a good country encompassed by the bay beach front plain north of the Chiapas Valley from the south achieves a stature of 1850 to 2500 m. In the western piece of this level, there are ripe good countries of Oaxaca. The Sierra Madre de Chiapas is situated in the south of the Chiapas Valley and comprises of volcanoes achieving 4000 m along the Guatemalan fringe.

Baja California, the third most astounding area, covers the landmass with a length of 1300 km and a width of 50 to 240 km. Its statures surpass 3000 m in the north and 2000 m in the south. Toward the upper east of the promontory, the Colorado Delta shapes a huge marsh. Baja California, the third most elevated land, covers the landmass with a length of 1300 km and a width of 50 to 240 km. Its statures surpass 3000 m in the north and 2000 m in the south. Toward the upper east of the promontory, the Colorado Delta shapes an extensive marsh.

Mexico isn’t just rugged however volcanic. The nearness of volcanic movement in the past happens in all parts of the nation. The biggest volcanic component is Sierra Volcanica Transversal, which partitions Mexico from west to east. The scene in this area is described by a huge number of old fiery remains cones and high volcanic slopes. Not very many of them are sufficiently high to keep an enduring benefit. There are as yet dynamic volcanic slopes. Because of an extraordinary blast in 1943, in the territory of Michoracan Parieutin Hill, 2808 m above ocean level, showed up.

Zelges are normal in Mexico, particularly on the Pacific drift and in the Gulf of California. Sierra Volcanica Transversal, regularly happening in the thickly populated territory, causes extraordinary harm in this locale.

In northern Mexico, couple of waterways stream consistently. The greater part of them rise up out of wet mountains transcending the fields and good countries. The Colorado River shapes a huge delta toward the beginning of the Gulf of California, yet the greater part of the water isn’t utilized for plant water system. The other real streams in northwest Mexico are Yaqui and Fijerte. The streams pouring from the focal and southern Mexico to the Pacific Ocean go through the more muggy districts and the waters are more rich. The most imperative ones are Santiago and Balsas.

The most vital stream is Rio Grande (or Rio Bravo), the majority of which isolate Mexico from the US and spill into the Gulf of Mexico. Further south is Panisco, Tecolutla, Papalcapan, Grijavala and Uslumaeinta. In the focal level, numerous streams that don’t exit to the ocean shape shut bowls.

Focal Mexico contains numerous vast and alluring lakes. The biggest one is the 1080 km Chapola Lake close Guadalajora.

The length of the Mexican drift is 9995 km, more than 66% of which are in the Pacific Ocean and part of it, the Gulf of California and Tehuantepec. The rest of the coasts are in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean.

Populace and Social Life

The general population of Mexico today are the disarray of old and new world individuals. 15% of the populace is whites, 25% is indigenous and the rest is half breeds. The greater part of the Indians live in the accompanying districts: Mahuat in Central Mexico; Zapotecs, Mixes, Algebras and others in the mountains of Oaxaca and Veracruz; Tzetzal and Tzotziller are found in the good countries of Orta Chiapas. As a major exemption to the social affair of the Indians in the good countries, the Mayans settled on the Yucatan Peninsula. The focal level contains numerous substantial gatherings. The two biggest urban communities are Mexico City and Guadalajora.

In Mexico, the death rate is eight for every thousand and the birth rate is forty-two thousand. This relates to 3.4% of the world’s biggest populace development rate. Because of the high populace development rate, an exceptionally youthful populace rose. 46% of the populace is underneath 15 years old. On the off chance that this rate proceeds with, the populace will expand twice in 22 years.

In spite of the fact that the birth rate in the worker populace is higher, the progress to urban life is relentlessly expanding. Today, individuals living in the city comprise 59% of the populace.

In spite of the fact that the Mexicans have been sneaking into the US for quite a long time, this wonder is turning into a noteworthy state issue today because of the high number of illicit laborers. Most specialists say today that there are somewhere in the range of 6 and 8 million illicit laborers in the US. 66% of these are Mexican. While the quantity of illicit Mexican individuals was 50 thousand during the 1965s, it achieved 700 thousand of every 1975.

Mexico is known as a place where there is contrasts. In this nation where 95% of the populace is Catholic, despite the fact that it isn’t connected as fierce; the constitution contains extreme conditions against the congregation. No congregation can possess arrive, even all congregation structures have a place with the state.

In Mexico, the official educational modules starts with a two-year pre-school or kindergarten. This is trailed by a 6-year educating from the age of 6. Understudies selected in essential instruction establish 75% of aggregate enlisted understudies and 3% of those enlisted in advanced education.

The official dialect of the nation is Spanish. Nahuatl, Aztec, Maya, Zapotec, Totonok, Chinantek, Mazatek, Chorotega, Farask dialects ​​are talked among local people.


Mexico’s populace development influences the nation’s economy to a vast degree, with a net workforce increment of around 800,000 individuals every year. A major issue emerges in light of the fact that they should be furnished with work.

There is an extraordinary uniqueness in salary dissemination in Mexico. Modern laborers have multiple times more salary than horticultural specialists. This huge distinction postpones the across the board offer of completed products in the local market.

The Mexican business is to a great extent dependent on preparing the nation’s underground wealth. Steel assumes a vital job in the mechanical segment. Its yearly steel generation is more than five million tons. Steel has for quite some time been created basically in Northern Mexico (Monclova and Montorkrey). In Veracruz, new steel plants were opened in Ciuda Lazaro Carden. Coal generation is deficient and it is around 11.000.000 tons. New oil fields (Poza Rica, Panuco, Veracruz north) and oil generation expanded to 910.137.000 barrels every year. Flammable gas and oil react to inward needs and frame the premise of most modern offices (Tampico, Poza Rica, oil refineries in Mexico City). Mexico is the second on the planet after Canada in silver generation (2400 tons). Fluorine, barium oxide and salt are sent out to the US. Sodium permits a solid cellulose industry. This industry was produced in Veracruz, Colima and Chihvahua, particularly in Mexico City. Concoction manure industry is additionally created in the nation. Bond and elastic vehicle businesses are additionally vital.

It is assessed that 95% of the worker families did not have any land before the 1910 upset. The land was circulated to the laborer through the agrarian change brought by this upheaval. Since 1910, three million agrarian specialists, who had no land ahead of time, had 90 million hectares of land. The creation increment in the rural segment isn’t adequate to meet the populace development. The interest in the local market is met by bringing in tough products, grain (wheat and corn) drain powder and oil seeds. Cotton, sugar, vegetables, natural products, crisp drain, isolated into residential utilization.

Egypt is developed all through Mexico. Roughly 50% of the region of the nation is reasonable for planting. Bean is the second most sown plant. Different plants are developed in constrained land. In excess of 800,000 hectares of land are planted, particularly in the inundated valleys of the northwest and in the focal Bajio district. The creation of (sorghum) is expanded. Winter vegetables are developed particularly in the northwestern territory of Sinalova. Tropical plants develop in seaside territories and in the south.