Argentina

The Republic of Argentina (Spain. República Argentina) 34 Güney 36 ları ’South latitudes and 58’ 27 leri en It is a country located in the South American continent, among Western longitudes. Argentina’s total area of ??2, 766, 890 sq km – nearly 3.5 times larger than Turkey – (it’s 2, 736, 690 km²’s land, water km²’s 30,200), while the 2006 figures, the population of 39, 921, It is 833 people.

Argentina is a state stretching between the Andes and the Atlantic Ocean in the southern part of the South American continent; the length of the coastline is 4989 km. The land owned by Argentina is the second largest in the South America and the 8th in the world. It is located on the border of Chile (5,308 km), Bolivia (832 km), Paraguay (1,880 km), Brazil (1,261 km) and Uruguay (580 km).

The name of Argentina comes from the Latin word ’Argentum’ ‘(silver). The name of the country, which is what the Spanish colonists hope to find in these lands, can be clearly understood. Most of the inhabitants of the country are descendants of Spanish and Italian immigrants.

Geography

With an area of ??about 2.8 million square kilometers, Argentina narrows as it goes from north to south, reminiscent of a long triangle. The length of the largest land extending from north to south is 3.694 km and from west to east is approximately 1.423 km. The Atlantic Ocean extends along the east coast, Chile to the west, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, and Brazil and Uruguay to the northeast.

Argentina is divided into 23 provinces (provincias) and a federal region (distrito federal):

States:
1 – Buenos Aires
2 – Buenos Aires (state)
3 – Catamarca
4 – Chaco
5 – Chubut
6 – Córdoba
7 – Corrientes
8 – Entre Ríos
9 – Formosa
10 – Jujuy
11 – La Pampa
12 – La Rioja
13 – Mendoza
14 – Misiones
15 – Neuquén
16 – Río Negro
17 – Salta
– San Juan
19 – San Luis
20 – Santa Cruz
21 – Santa Fe
22 – Santiago del Estero
23 – Tierra del Fuego and the South Atlantic Islands
24 – Tucúman

Federal District:
Buenos Aires

Surface Shapes

Patagonia, Argentina The main feature of the surface shapes of the eastern plains in the west creates a great contrast between the mountains.

In the West, the Andes rises with depressions, elevations, and volcanic eruptions. The ongoing earthquakes and volcanoes in the region prove that the territory is not yet occupied. The Andes in the north are more masculine. The high plateau extends between the 3500 – 4500 meters high, which is the continuation of the high plateaus of Bolivia. There are volcanoes with altitude exceeding 6000 meters. In the South, the mass is divided into closed basins and elevated blocks, and the climate becomes dry. This arid Catamarca la Rioja lies between the Mendoza foothills and the Santiago basin, in the form of a high mountain range (the highest point in Argentina with 6959 meters in Aconcagua). In 36 ° South latitude, the Andes are narrowed, descended and crushed by large transverse ruptures. The fourth glaciation was effective in this area and contributed to the formation of transverse valleys and lakes (Nahuel Huapí, etc.).

Sarmiento Park, Córdoba The plains and plateaus covering a large part of the country spread over the vastly lowered Brazilian saddle. The Brazilian shield creates very high masses only in the great mass of the Córdoba in front of the Andes, (a real wall covering the horizon from the West and a height of more than 2000 meters); in the south of the plain, it takes on much less high forms. It is astonishing that the topography of the region covering an area of ??one million square kilometers, extending from the Paraguayan border to the Colorado River, and that there are no regular river streams. Wind sediments at the end of the Third Time and at the beginning of the Fourth Time formed thick slime layers with salty and mostly crustal layers, but these layers were covered with loaves in the East and North during the near glacial periods, and sand in the west and in the central part. The surface forms are very diverse in detail and are dependent on climatic characteristics. In the tropical climate zone of Chaco, there is a deforested vegetation with palm trees. In the East and South, the Pampas region, which is located in the temperate climate latitudes, is covered with natural meadows. The meadows of various species, loose, deep and fertile black or brown lands give the Pampa a world-famous productivity. Paraná and Paraguay form a real river set in the east, which determines the boundary of the plain (the rivers used to have reached the plain from the ocean). In the east lies the hills of Entre Ríos, the flooded plains of Corrientes, and the basalt ridges of Misiones, forming a whole (a kind of Mesopotamia) between the River Paraná and the River Uruguay.

Mountains

Aconcagua, Argentina There are many mountain ranges over 6,000 meters in the Andes. The highest peak of Argentina and the Americas (Aconcagua) and the two highest volcanoes in the world, Ojos del Salado (6.880 m) and Monte Pissis (6.795m) are located here. In the southern parts of the Andes, high mountains are less sparse, but they are covered with snow due to the cool and cold climate.

It is also possible to find elevations in Sierras Pampeanas. The Sierra de Famatina in the state of La Rioja is over 6,000 meters. However, the altitude of these mountain ranges decreases as they go east, and the heights of the mountains in Sierras de Córdoba are at most 2,800 meters.

In the northern part of the Mesetas Patagónicas (Patagonia Plains), the elevations in the southeast of Mendoza are about 4,700 meters, while these elevations are reduced as they go to the southeast. Mountains in other parts of Argentina rarely exceed 1,000 meters. Examples of these rare cases are the Sierras Australes Bonaerenses (Sierra de la Ventana and Sierra de Tandil) on the Atlantic coast and in the mountainous region of Misiones.

Rivers and Lakes

The source of the rivers in Argentina is largely Río de la Plata. The rivers pouring into Río de la Plata are spread over an area of ??5,200,000 km² and almost a third of this area is located within the borders of Argentina, while the rest is located in Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The two major rivers pouring into Río de la Plata are the Paraná River and the River Uruguay. In the north, the Iguazú and Iguazú National Park, one of the largest waterfalls in the world, are located on the Brazilian border. The Iguazú River and its waterfalls are three times larger than the Niagara Falls.

Iguazú Falls, the second largest river in the north of Patagonia, is Colorado. Its most important branch, the Río Salado del Oeste, waters a large part of Western Argentina, but it is a dry, swampy river that has become an arid climate.

There are two large lakes in Argentina. The first and the big one is the region where the fresh water lakes start from the foothills of the Southern Andes and follow each other from the Neuquén to the Fire Lands (Tierra del Fuego). The second is the low and generally salty lakes in the western part of Pampa and south of Chaco.

Laguna Mar Chiquita (5770 km²) and the Los Glaciares National Park in Córdoba, and Lago Argentino (1415 km²) and Lago Viedma (1088 km²), which are accepted by NATO as a world heritage, are among the important lakes. The famous Perito Moreno Glacier is also located in this park.

Islands

La Isla de los Lobos (Seal Island) Argentina has a very long coastline, but it has a very small number of islands. Its largest island is the Tierra del Fuego (47,000 km²), which belongs to the Tierra del Fuego Archipelago. It shared the island with Argentina (21,571 km²) and Chile (25,571 km²). In addition, there are Falkland Islands (Las Islas Malvinas / Falkland Islands), which are claimed by Argentina, but are governed by the United Kingdom. After the invasion of the island in April 1982 in Argentina, the Falkland War, which lasted until June 14, 1982, began and this war ended with the defeat of Argentina. The largest island in the Falkland Archipelago is Soledad (East Falkland) -6683 km²- and Gran Malvina (West Falkland) – 5278 km². South Georgia and the South Sissy Islands have the same status.

Other important islands are the islands located in the area between Bahía Blanca and Bahía Anegada Bay in the south of Buenos Aires Province. The islands are flat and are completely empty, except for Jabalí Island, where the San Blas spa is located. The biggest island is Trinidad Island with an area of ??207 km². There are also a few small islands on the coast of Patagonia.

Climate and Vegetation

The southern tip of the country on the ocean front is humid and temperatures are never high. The climate is warm, rainy and tea is grown here in the state of Misiones, at a temperature of 9.2 ° C in the Ushuaia, at a north end of 3700 km, in the province of Misiones. In all the regions of the country, while the temperatures from North to South are decreasing, the main feature of the climate is that it is dry. It extends across Argentina from a wide arid zone from the Northwest to the Southwest. This) arid diagonal görül begins in high plateaus and basins in the Andes, and runs on mountain foothills (193 mm rainfall per year in Mendoza) and ends on the Patagonia coast (rainfall below 200 mm). The climate in Pampa changes gradually from the Atlantic coast towards the interior. The rainy (1200 mm) and generally soft climate near the Río de la Plata is terrestrial and arid in the interior. Rainfall is intensified during the summer and the moisture they bring undergoes a great evaporation. The 600 mm stock curve draws a wide arc from Bahía Blanca to Córdoba. Thus, from the ’rainy” Pampa to the “dry” Pampa.

Pucará de Tilcara, Due to these conditions described, there is little forest in Argentina. A large part of the country is covered with meadows and thorny bushes. The western half of the country, located in the North of Patagonia, is covered with a sparse plant assemblage consisting of trees and small trees with few spines and few leaves. A small amount of shrubs and some wheat grains were clustered between the rocks of Patagonia. An endless meadow of high natural grass and a bad pasture, the Pampa has been replaced by the introduction of new herbs from Europe and the spreading of clover and clover. The tree is planted, but real forests are located in the southern Andes lakes in the administrative region (Arokarya Forests) and around the Strait of Magellan (beech forests). The large tropical forest in the north is located in Argentina in two places: on the eastern slopes of the Misiones and on the eastern slopes of the Tucumán Andes, there is a forest (Quebrachos), which is dominated by hardwood-rich species.

Population and Economy

The settlement of people to Argentina took place by descending from the Spanish highlands to the northwest and from the mining areas to the Andes. This was the first Argentine, an extension of the mining areas in question, providing grain, sheep and load animals (especially mule). The Atlantic Ocean front was uninterested for a long time. Therefore, the agricultural and shepherd economy of the Andes in the northwest is XVIII. century, and the cities established by the Spanish (colonial-era-dependent and vibrant Argentina [[Buenos Aires]] port and Pampa] still densely populated by migrations to the right), the day until the foundation of the hybrid Argentina It was created. XIII. In the second half of the 16th century, when the city of Buenos Aires was established by the King Naipate (its capital was Buenos Aires) and opened to Atlantic Ocean trade before independence, the weight of Argentina began to Aires slide ine from the Andes to the Plata halic, and the exact turning XIX. the last quarter of the century. The main role in this development was the fact that the cattle, who were allowed to wander in Pampa during the conquest of the Spaniards, started to grow with commercial understanding. XIII to Europe: leather in the XIX century, XIX. While dried meat was sold in the first half of the century, these products were replaced by sheep wool. After this date, the owners of the meadows in Pampa became the main economic and political power closely related to the foreign bourgeoisie in Buenos Aires, and over time in the whole of Argentina. The European city markets, capitals, techniques and even people were allowed to settle in the territory of the country between 1800 and 1900 and then to equip and complete all of these lands. Until 1929 the Great Economic Depression, the country experienced a great period of prosperity, based on the evaluation of agricultural products for export (Great Britain). Very large farms (y lar iler iler estancia ek, ayır) were made in Pampa, and the landowners added wheat, linen and corn to the ramers they placed in these farms, then separated large areas of clover for the cattle. Large farms began to meet the requirements of frozen meat of British butchers. In the Rosario Santa Fe Pampa area near Paraná and in many parts of the arid Pampas, large landowners divide their land into parcels and rented or shared land to farmers from Italy or even from Eastern Europe. This type of crops cultivated in 1930 turned Argentina into a country selling mainly wheat, corn and oil in international trade. The country’s marginal areas were opened to operation, focusing on agriculture for domestic consumption (except for Patagonia, where sheep-wool was sold abroad – left to large-scale companies). When the Great Economic Depression erupted, Argentina, where 7 million migrants (half of them Italian, one-third Spanish) came, became a biri new lak country where white people lived. The country’s products were Ülke flowing ’into the ports of Bahía Blanca, especially in the port of Buenos Aires, down the coast of Paraná, through its frequent rail network in the Pampas and their arms to the edge. Since the population could not find land in the rural areas owned by a small number of large landowners, the population flocked to flock cities. The economic crisis increased this development in urbanization; Buenos Aires, where the migration from the village to the city has reached extraordinary dimensions, has become one of the biggest mainland in the world. The state supported the development of industry. After 1947, during the period of Peron’s presidency, the state undertook public services and major equipment work, and supported the cooperation between the national private sector based on a corporation trade union movement and the ini heavy industry m that was under the control of the military. Due to the absence of foreign markets, Pampa agriculture paused until the end of the Second World War; but in the same period, the European hunger and meat were deprived of hunger as a result of the continuation of the policy of systematically transferring to the non-agricultural sectors. In spite of the development of new products for the domestic market (milk, oil extracted plants), the migration from the village to the city reached to giant dimensions. At the end of the 1950s, this large agricultural country was completely excluded from the world market as a result of the extraordinary developments in the Anglo-Saxon type of agriculture of new countries. Common equipment from the turn of the century was obsolete, especially in terms of rail and maritime transport. However, while several light industries were developing, several important new branches, such as the oil and steel industry, were established. Argentina has become an urbanized country, even a bomb city-country Arjantin, while its vast territory is an empty country.

 

Colombia

Historical

The territories of Colombia were discovered by the Spaniards under the command of Ganzalo Jiménez de Quesada and Sebastian de Balalcozar at the beginning of the 16th century and turned into a colony.

Until the eighteenth century, the country was ruled by whites of Spanish origin. After that, the struggle for independence was strengthened by North America and France.

In 1886, the country was named after Columbus, who discovered the continent, and the Republic of Colombia was proclaimed. In 1903, Panama became an independent state with the aid of the US. Due to this separation, there was tension between the USA and Colombia until 1921. After this date, the Liberal Party, the two big parties to the Colombian Party and the Conservative Party was dominated. But the friction between the two parties led to internal turmoil and the country being ruled by dictators for a long time. Today, internal civil unrest continues in Colombia, which is governed by civilian government.

Physical Structure

In terms of physical structure, Colombia is divided into three different regions.

Coast: Colombia is the only country in South America that has two large oceans. The Siarra Baudo region on the shores of the Great Ocean, the shores of the Atlantic Ocean, and all the shores except the Santa Marta region are flat and low.

Mountains: The Colombian Andes open in the form of a fan near the south-western border of the country, extending to the north and northeast, creating three mountain ranges. They are called Eastern Cordillera, Central and Western Cordillera. The western Cordillera Mountains are relatively low. However, there are high hills such as Cumbal Volcano (4892 m).

Middle Cordillera is high and the hills are covered with snow. The Cauca River, which is located between the West and the Central Cordillera, floods the Cauca River.

The wide valley between the central and eastern Cordillera mountains, the waters of the Meydelona River. The highlands of 2000-3000 m in the Eastern Cordillera Mountains are very high. This region creates the agricultural area of ??the country with its fertile land.

Eastern region: This region is a large and flat area, irrigated by the tributaries of large rivers such as Orinoko and Amazon. The northern part of this region is covered with savanna and the southern part is covered by equatorial forests. Only about 20% of the population lives in the region, which constitutes about half of the country’s territory.

Climate

Because of Colombia’s proximity to the equator, the climate is tropical. Climate varies by region. An average annual precipitation of 10.160 mm falls to the west of Western Cordillera, while the average annual precipitation on the coast of the Caribbean Sea is below 255 mm. In the eastern part, the humid tropical climate prevails.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Vegetation also varies according to regions such as climate. Tropical forests around the Amazon, swamp bays on the shores of the Great Ocean; moist grasslands in the northern part; mountain plants in high mountains; There are desert plants in La Guajira. The country, which has such a diverse flora, has jaguar, lion, fox, mammalian bears like bears, birds approaching two thousand, numerous insects and reptiles.

Mines: The country is rich in underground resources. There are various metals such as oil, gold, platinum, emerald, coal, iron and limestone. It takes second place in the world in platinum production.

Population and Social Life

The population of the country is 33.292.000 and consists of four ethnic groups. Indians constitute 7% of the population, 5% are blacks, 20% are whites and the rest are hybrids.

Most of the population is concentrated on the plateaus of the Eastern Cordillera Mountains and on the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean. Major cities spread to different parts of the country. Important cities: Medellin, Berangu and Cartogena.

The official language is Spanish. But the words of the languages ??of the Indians and blacks were enriched and changed. Most of the people belong to the Catholic sect of Christianity.

Education: 5 years of primary education in the country is compulsory and free. One of the countries with the highest literacy rate in South America is Colombia. 80% of the people are literate. There are 22 universities.

Political Life

The legislative power in the country governed by a Republic based on the presidential system rests with the Parliament. The parliament consists of a 112-member senate and a 214-member assembly, elected for 4 years.

Economy

Agriculture: Agriculture is usually based on coffee production. It takes first place in coffee production in the world. Coffee grows mostly in the valleys of Cauca and Magdalena. Coffee, corn, sugarcane, cotton, banana, rice, potatoes, wheat and tobacco are grown. Livestock breeding is usually developed on the coast of the Caribbean and on the plains in the east of the East.

Industry: Industry moves in the country have been successful in recent years. Industrial centers are gathered around three major cities. Textile industry has progressed. There are oil refineries, cement, rubber, paper mills, food processing factories and automobiles, electrical appliances and chemicals factories, which are generally established with foreign investments.

Trade: The most important product of the Colombian trade is coffee. Half of its exports make coffee. It follows oil, banana, cotton, sugar, platinum, gold, tobacco and cattle. Outside, it buys motor vehicles and machinery.

Transportation: Transverse mountain ranges of the country prevent road construction. The length of railways in the country is 106,218 km and the length of the railways is 3500 km. 10% of the roads are asphalt. 1500 km of the Magdelena River can be reached by transportation.

In the major cities, air transportation is established with the Airlines established in 1919. There are 69 airports in the country.

 

Venezuela

Historical

Until 1498, when Chistophes was discovered by Columbus (Christopher Colomp), the population of the Carib was formed. For the Spaniards, the conquest of Venezuela was difficult and slow due to the strong resistance of the Indians. Many towns were established in the country. Caracas was founded in 1567 and became the capital city in 1577. Venezuela was given to the administration of other colonies because it was considered a relatively insignificant part of the Spanish Empire. He was tied to Santo Domingo, the current Dominican Republic, and then to the Governor’s office in Granada. In 1776, the declaration of independence of the US and the French Revolution of 1789 were a model for independence. Napoleon’s war against Spain brought the end of the colonial era in April 1810. The creeks (the white people born in the country) set up a junta by dismissing the Spanish ruler. On 5 July 1811, an independent confederation was declared. This proclamation led to a 10-year war between the royal forces and the Creols. On June 24, 1821, the final victory was attained against Spain in the battle of Carababo. As a result of the dispute, Venezuela was an independent republic in 1830, leaving the confederation of many South American countries. From 1830 to the end of the 19th century, great crises followed one another. In most of the twentieth century, the country was ruled by military dictators. They developed the oil industry, made many social reforms. Since 1959, the country has begun to be ruled by governments that have come to power with democratic elections. The dispute with Guyana in the Essequibo border region began again in 1982. Pérez, who was elected for a second term in 1989, led to street demonstrations. When the people began the looting business, many people died on the intervention of the troops. In the elections held in December 1993, Rafael Caldera was elected to the presidency by taking the majority of votes. Rafael Celdera became president for the second time after 25 years. He took office on 6 December 1993.

Physical Structure

Venezuela is divided into four different natural regions: the Maracaibo lowlands, the northern highlands, the Orinoco lowlands and the Guyana Plateau. The length of the coasts is 2815 km and includes 72 islands of big and small in the Caribbean Sea. The largest of these islands is Margorita.

The Maracabio lowlands contain 52,000 km2 plain plains around Lake Maracabio and the Gulf of Venezuela. This area also includes the Paraguana Peninsula. It is separated from the rest of the country by Cardillera de Mérida in the south-east and Segovia in the northeast.

The mountainous region in the north begins with the Sierra de Périja, a branch of the Colombian Andes. The Cordillera de Mérida, another branch of the Andes, extends towards the shore in the northeast. The width of these mountains ranges from 13 to 64 km and the highest point is Pico Bolivar (5007 m). All year long, there is only snow on these mountains.

To the north are the Orinoco Plains to the south of the mountains. These plains extend from the Colombian border to the Atlantic Ocean on the Orinoco Delta. The plains narrow to the east between the rivers and their width decreases from 400 km to 80 km. Then it expands again in the Orinoco Delta.

The Guyana Plateau is located south of the Orinoco River and contains more than half of the territory of Venezuela. The wide plateaus are cut abruptly at the tip of steep rocks of 762 m. The heights reach up to 2180 m in the flat hills, which rise from their soles vertically. Angel waterfalls (979 m), the highest waterfall in the world, are poured from Auyáan-Tepui.

The country was built with a large river network. The Orinoco River waters the southern slopes of the mountains, the plains and Guyana Plateau, along with 436 branches. Orinoco, before the source of the Brazilian border to the north, then towards the east leads to a large delta. It is poured into the Atlantic Ocean. The length of this route is 2736 km. Maracaibo is the largest lake in Latin America and it is 121 km wide and 230 km long. Its surface area is 13.000 km2.

Climate

A tropical climate prevails in Venezuela. In the northeast, most of the year, relatively cold and dry alizeler work. The temperature varies depending on the height. The low coastal and river valleys in the inner region are hot and humid. High plots are usually mild in the daytime, cold at night.

The temperature is about 24 ° C up to a height of 800 m on average. It ranges from 10 to 27 ° C at altitudes of 800 to 2000 m. Above 2000 m, it is 18 ° C. The annual rainfall in the Paraguana Peninsula is 508 mm. The annual rainfall in South Maracaibo Plains and the Orinoco Delta is about 2032 mm. The central valley between the highlands of Guyana Plateau and the mountains in the north receives moderate rainfall. There is a precipitation of 787 mm per year in Caracas.

Natural Resources

About 40% of Venezuela is covered with forest. On the lower slopes of Maracaibo, on the lower slopes of Cardillera de Mérida and on the southwest slopes of the highlands of Guyana, there are jungles (frequent forest). More than 1800 m in the forests gradually sparse place on the grass. In the high foothills of the Andes, there are paramó vegetation consisting of alpine-type small shrubs and lichens. Orinoco has evergreen trees with leaves along the banks of the rivers in the lowlands. The Orinoco delta is often covered with mangrove bushes. The major wild animals found in the country are wild bovine, jaguar, puma, bear, deer, tapir and monkey. In Venezuela, oil, iron and gold are extracted. It ranks fifth in the world in oil production.

Population and Social Life

Three-quarters of the people of Venezuela, with a population of 20,188,000, live in cities. The major cities are the capital city of Caracas (2,265,874), Maracaibo, Barquisimeto and Valencia.

Of the population, 69% are hybrids, 20% are whites (Spanish, Portuguese and Italian), 9% are black and 2% are natives. Although hybrids constitute a majority, whites dominate social and cultural life. Whites earn most of their income by trading. Most hybrids and blacks work in agriculture or are workers. Hybrids are scattered throughout the country; whites were collected in cities. Most blacks live on the north coast. The tribes are usually found in the south or on the border with Colombia.

96% of Venezuelans are Catholics. According to the 1961 Constitution, Catholicism is the official religion of the country. Approximately 2% of the population is Protestant. There are small Muslim and Jewish communities in big cities. The inhabitants of the jungles and South Venezuela are pagans.

Education is free and compulsory until 14 years of age. 86% of the population is literate. The main collections are in Caracas, Maracaibo and Mérida. Almost everyone speaks Spanish, the official language. English is used as a second language among businessmen. Portuguese and Italian are the mother tongue for a significant part of the immigrants. The locals speak their own tribal language.

Political Life

Venezuela is a federal region, a federal republic consisting of two federal countries and 20 islands and some islands in the Caribbean. The president appoints the state administrators. The National Congress puts all the laws. The president is elected for five years by the direct public vote and cannot be chaired in successive periods. The Congress consists of a senate and a National Assembly. Each state chooses two senators, deputies are proportional to the population. National congressional elections are held every five years. Voting is compulsory for 18 years and older except for prisoners and soldiers. Venezuela is a member of the United Nations and the United States.

Economy

The Venezuelan economy is largely dependent on petroleum products. Oil constitutes 95% of exports and 30% of non-real GDP. Oil industry, iron mining, steel production and other basic industries are under the control of the government. Venezuela exports very few agricultural products. Imports food and timber. Since the production of consumables is very expensive, it has a limited domestic market. manufacturing, mainly food, tobacco, textile, paper and plastic industries. Half of the construction sector is in the hands of the private sector. The main plants grown are coffee, rice, fruits and sugar. The government is making efforts to increase agricultural products. From outside the machine takes the means of transport, chemicals and food products.

The transportation network in the heavily populated Maracaibo and the mountainous regions in the north is quite developed. The express highways connect to the ports of Caracas, Valencia, La Guaria and Puerto Cabello. The length of the roads is 100.571 km and approximately 33.188 km of it is covered with asphalt. Important railways are between Puerto Cabello and Barquisimeto, and between the Ciuadad Guyana and the iron mines in Cerro Bolivar. Oil pipelines extend from main wells to ports and important cities.

Venezuela trade with the United States, United Germany and Japan most. In addition, it tries to increase its commercial relations with neighboring Latin American countries. He is a member of the Latin American Free Trade Association and one of the founders of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

 

Peru

Historical

Because of the lack of written and recorded documents about the history of Peru before the Spanish period, the information is very weak. According to the results of the historical studies, the first inhabitants of the Peruvian territory were nomadic hunters and fishermen who crossed the Bosphorus and crossed the Pacific Ocean. BC in Peru. 1200 years, M.S. Until 1532, various civilizations came and went. The last of these periods, known as Chavin (Şöven), Classical, Chimu and İnka, is the most influential in the continent and in the country.

The Spanish first came to the country in 1531 through Francisco Pizarro. After that, Lima became the center of the governors in Peru. The Spanish administration, which has settled and gained strength in South America, has delayed Peru’s independence. In 1821, Argentine Jose de San Martin captured the land of Peru with the forces he had gathered. The forces under the command of Simon Bolivar and Antonio J. de Sucre defeated the Spaniards. After the capture of Callao in 1826, Peru declared its independence. Thus the Spanish Empire on the American continent collapsed.

Until 1846, political and political struggles emerged in the country. First, in 1822 the congress adopted a constitution and in 1823 Jose de la Riva Agüero became the first president of the country. Between 1879-84 he attacked Chile, Peru and Bolivia and captured Tarapaca, Tacna and Arica. After a struggle that lasted for many years, a 1929 agreement ended the dispute. According to the treaty, all regions outside the Arica region were returned to Peru. With a military coup in 1968, President Femando Belaunde Terry was dismissed. Until the military government continued until 1974, oil, banking, mining and fishing were nationalized.

After a hiatus of 12 years, Peru returned to democratic life in 1980. F. B. Terry was brought back to the Presidency. The new government abandoned the socialist system and brought the liberal system to the country. The country’s economy has recovered from the deadlock and returned to normal. There were some conflicts in Ecuador’s border in 1981, but it closed quickly. After that, Mao başlacu leftist terrorists started to make incidents in the country. In 1982 and 1983, these acts of terror which were accelerated were mostly against the US. In 1985, Alan Garcia Perez, who came to power, tried to suppress the actions of the crime. In 1990, Alberto Tujimori, who won the elections, quickly increased the number of leftists. On April 5, 1992, President Alberto Fujimori made a civilian coup and disbanded the congress and established a state of emergency and reconstruction. On November 13, 1992, a failed assassination attempt was made to President Alberto. Elections for the newly formed Democratic Constituent Congress were held on 22 November 1992, and the parties that supported President Alberto gained a absolute majority. Meanwhile, Guzman, the leader of the Light Road Guerrilla organization, was captured. Guzman was responsible for the death of 22,500 people in the guerrilla war that started in 1980 and was sentenced to life imprisonment. Despite this, confusion continues in the country.

Physical Structure

The area of ??Peru is approximately 1.285.216 km2. It is the third largest country of the South American continent with its vast territory. It is adjacent to Ecuador in the north, Colombia in the northeast, and Brazil, Bolivia and Chile in the east. West is covered with the Pacific Ocean. The Andes Mountains stretching from the northwest to the southeast divide the country into three main regions: the coastal zone, the Sierra region and the Martana region.

Approximately 2240 km long and ranging from 16 to 64 km, the coastal area occupies 11% of the territory of Peru. The height of the region can range from 1525 m above sea level. The most mountainous region of the country, Sierra, is approximately 340 km wide and an average 3500 m high. Huascaran Mountain in the region is 6768 m and is the highest point of the country. The peaks of the mountains, which have a height above 5000 m in the Sierra region, are constantly covered with snow. The Sierra region constitutes 33% of the country. Volcanic events are also seen in the region. El Misti is a known volcanic. Mantana, which is the largest region in the country, covers almost 56% of the surface area. The region is the region where the southern slopes of the Andes and the plateau of the Upper Amozon basin are covered with forests.

The major rivers of the country originate from the Sierra region and are concentrated in the region of Amozon. Important rivers of the country; Maranon, Huallaga, Apurimac, Urubamba, Ucayali, Napo, Yavari, Putumayo, Madre de Dios and Amozon, which is the longest of the Amozon River is about 3700 km.

There are also small rivers. Almost all of these rivers are poured into Lake Titicaca. This lake is located on the border of Bolivia. It is the widest lake in the Andes region and has a length of around 160 km. Lake Titicaca is 3810 m above sea level and is the highest lake in the world.

Climate

The coastal zone has a moderate climate. However, the Peru Cold Water Flow significantly lowers the temperature of the region. The Lima region is the driest region with an average annual rainfall of 41 mm. Regardless of the area, the area has high humidity in terms of humidity. This amount of moisture is 87% in Lima.

The Sierra region has a generally dry climate. The air temperature varies according to height and is generally cool. For example, at 3050 m high Hurancayo Mountain air temperature (-4 to 24 ° C) varies. The day-night temperatures in the country are very different because it is located close to the equator. April is more precipitation months.

The Montana region is hot and humid. The temperature in Iquitos is around 21 ° C. There are severe tropical precipitation and the average annual precipitation is about 3302 mm.

Natural Resources

The coastal zone is largely without trees. Only in the valleys of the North American legumes, bushes, Australian eucalyptus (malaria) and various fruit trees grow. It is also found in abundance of cactus and desert plants. As an animal, there are more lizards, spiders, scorpions, snails and rye (a kind of large spider, taredula).

In the Sierre region, there are many green areas and wooded areas. It grows mostly in evergreen trees and eucalyptus (malaria) type trees. There is also plenty of cocaine trees. More in the region; grows animals such as lama, alpaca, guanaco (a large animal without a camel), vikunya and chinçula (a similar animal). The Sierra region is rich in bird species. Red-breasted juniper (robin), flycatcher, finch, partridge, flycatcher, wild duck, goose and vulture are common birds in the region.

The vegetation and animals of the Montana region are almost the same as those in the Amozon basin. As a tree grows in abonosis, mahogany, cedar, rubber and coriander. The quinine is obtained from the garment. Vanilla, sapaina, fibrous plants are quite. Grows in flower type as begonia, bag flower and orchid. There are also savannas, shrubs, rough-veined plants and stunted trees. Puma, jagar, tapir, crusted lizard, pessary, anteater, maritime, crocodile, sea turtle, snake and monkey are available in ample amounts. Parrot, flamingo and butterfly species are quite large. Moth, fly and mosquito are millions.

The country’s mineral resources are quite rich. Copper is the most important mineral variety. Silver, lead, zinc, iron, cadmium, selenium, tin, gold, tungsten, antimony, bismuth, tellurium, coal, barium, salt, limestone, marble and gypsum are important minerals. Oil deposits are also available in northern regions.

Peru is also rich in surface waters. The existing three drainage systems contain more than 50 large and small rivers. All these rivers are separated branches of the Amozon River, the main source. The length of the Amozon River is approximately 3700 km. Lake Titicaca on the Bolivian border is 3810 m high above sea level and has a length of about 160 km.

Population and Social Life

The population of Peru is approximately 22,950,000. 73% of the population lives in cities. The population density is 14. Indians, which constitute the majority among ethnic groups in the country, contain 45% of the population. Almost 40% of the population is hybrid. The rest is made up of Negro and Asian groups. The majority of the white population is of Spanish origin.

The official languages ??are Spanish and Quechua native language. Two-thirds of Indians, who make up the majority of the population, use Quechua. They usually live in the Sierra area. Lake Titicaca and the remaining Indians living in South Sierra speak with the Aymara language. Hybrids and whites speak Spanish.

The majority of the population is Catholic. There have been some different classes in terms of race, economic level, social life and culture level among the people. The majority of Indians are poor people. They live on hunting and agriculture.

Literacy rate is about 72%. After the education and training law in 1972, primary school compulsory and other schools were released. Many private schools are available. There are 30 universities in the country. The most famous of them; National Education University in Lima, National Engineering University and San Marcos University.

In the people of Peru, the production of more ceramic ware is important in terms of handicrafts. Toy lama making, various rugs and carpet weaving, colored fabric making and llama, alpaca and vikunyu (a kind of llama) knitting of wool are the main branches of art.

The most developed city in the country is Lima. Other important cities are Callao, Arequipa, Trujillo, Iquitos, Cuzco and Huancayo.

Political Life

Its administrative system is a central republic based on the principles of parliamentary democracy. According to the 1980 Constitution of Peru, the president and two co-chairs are elected by popular vote. The President appoints the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. The President must take at least 50% of the votes to be elected.

The legislative power is at the congress. The congress has two councils. The Senate has 60 members and the National Assembly has 180 members and is subject to election. Presidential and congress elections are held every 5 years. 18-year-olds can vote. It is administratively divided into one province and 24 regions. He is a member of the United Nations.

Economy

Peru’s commercial economy is largely based on minerals, agricultural products and industrial products and fisheries. The main agricultural products grown in the country are cotton, sugar beet, coffee, rice, potato, beans, corn, barley and tobacco.

Peru is a very rich country in terms of underground resources. The main minerals of the country are: copper, silver, molybdenum, lead, oil, zinc, iron, cadmium, tin, gold, coal, barium, salt, marble, gypsum, limestone, tellurium, antimony, tungsten, selenium and bismuth. The most important industries in the country are the fish and steel industries. More sardines are hunted on the coast. Another source of income in the country is forest products such as timber, rubber, quinine, dark red rosewood and Brazilian chestnut.

Peru has a very commercial income with its minerals and prepared fish dishes. The main products of export are copper, fish dishes, coffee, iron, sugar, zinc, silver, lead, cotton, gold and wool. At the beginning of 1993, foreign trade reached $ 3.3 billion. Exports to Japan and the United States more.

Machinery, foodstuffs, fuels, oils, non-metallic minerals, chemical products and steel are the main import goods. Imports are mostly done by USA and Germany.

Peru is one of the countries of the Andean Common Market. Apart from Peru, the market, including Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Bolivia, introduced a customs exemption and a common external tax system among member states.

Peru’s transportation network developed after the 19th century. The length of the railways is 3472 km. Of the 69,942 km roads, only 11% are asphalt. Airways are available from 22 airports.

 

Brasil

Historical

On April 21, 1500, Pedro Alveras Cabrol, a Portuguese sailor, made his way to South America with the assumption that I was going to India and declared the country to be held on behalf of the Portuguese king. In 1530, during an expedition led by Martin Alfonso de Sousa, he founded the city of Sao Vicente, a suburb of Rio de Janeiro and a year later the city of Santos. The city of Piratiningo was founded in 1532 in a high area near Sao Vicente. Brazil was a Spanish colony from 1580 to 1640 when the Portuguese dominated Spain. In 1640 the Portuguese recovered Brazil. The government moved from Salvador in 1763 to Rio de Janeiro. Because this place was more appropriate to be geographically and strategically central.

In 1698, plenty of gold was found in Sao Paulo. Later on, exploration trips to the inner parts of the Amazon basin were found as well as other mines. Although various feudal groups emerged in the region, there was no longer living and unity.

The system, which divided Brazil between Salvador Dali and Rio de Janeiro in 1572, continued until the 17th century. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Spaniards, the British, the French and the Germans were not able to succeed in capturing this region from time to time. After the Portuguese occupied by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1807, the king’s family and some of the state’s elders fled to Brazil and the following year established the government headquarters in Rio de Janeiro. In the meantime, the population of Brazil was 2,500,000, of which 400,000 were white 1.300,000 and 800,000 were indigenous. In 1538, black men were brought from Africa as slaves to be employed in large sugarcane farms and mines. When Napoleon was defeated by European states in 1819, the Portuguese king left his nephew Don Pedro and the Governor of Brazil and returned to Portugal.

In 1822, when the Portuguese parliament wanted to return to its first colony status, the Brazilians started the independence movements under the leadership of Don Pedro Jose Boni Facia deAndrada Silvan and declared their independence on September 7, 1822, and in 1824 they adopted a liberal constitution. After the irregular wars, the Portuguese had to accept the independence of Brazil. Brazil was ruled by the kingdom until 1889.

Brazil was the only country in Latin America that was ruled by the kingdom for the longest time. In 1831 Don Pedro and his son Don Pedro were forced to flee the throne. The foundations of modern Brazil were laid in the second Don Pedro. In 1888, 800,000 villagers were given freedom. In 1889, with a bloodless coup, the administration of the kingdom was destroyed and the republic was established. Brazil, which provided political unity in 1914, was recognized by the countries of the world. It is an unstable country and there are often constitutional changes and revolutions.

Physical Structure

The distance between the point between the northernmost point of Brazil and the east and west is almost equal to each other (4225 km). In general, surface shapes are examined in two broad categories.

1. Wide plain plains of the Amazon River basin in the north, Parana and Paraguay river in the west.
2. The high plateaus of Brazil in the east and the Cuiana highlands in the north.

Two large river systems are boundless between two high mountainous regions. Although more than half of almost all of Brazil have places higher than 200 meters above sea level, the dominant part of the population is located in higher places. Almost 4% of the country is above 900 m above sea level. The highest mountain in Brazil is Pico da Bandeira and it is 2890 m.

Streams: The vast Amazon River is the largest and most water-bearing river in the world. It emerges from the east of the Andes in Peru and flows through the Brazilian plains. It is suitable for river transportation from the Atlantic Ocean to Peru. It forms various canals and islands where it is poured into the sea. The largest island is the island of Marajo, 26 km2. Important branches of the Amazon, Tocantins, Araguaia, Xingu and Topajostur. The other important river is the River Parana.

Lakes: There are two important lakes in Brazil. These are Lagoa dos patos and Lagoa.

Climate

Generally, Brazil’s climate is thought to be the same all around, but there are various climate differences in the country. The highest temperature seen in Brazil was recorded in the northeastern lowlands. The high amount of solar radiation absorbed here raises the temperature to 38 ° C. According to the results obtained in the Amazon Basin in the north, most of the year is moist and hot. The average annual rainfall is 2000 mm.
Northeast coasts have a tropical humid climate, and the rainy season (from May to October) that comes with the winters brings cold weather to the northern coasts. The inner parts of the damp regions in the northeast are desert. In the northeast of Brazil there are cactus and other plants in the constantly arid regions called Sertao. Summer is the rainy season except for the Amazon region. During the rest of the year the weather goes normally. Generally, the precipitation increases from the beach. However, the strong winds bringing damp rain, the inner parts are faced with mountain barriers. To the south of Sao Paulo, the Serra do Mar barrier in the Itapanhau region causes a rainfall of 4500 mm per year.

The most important factor controlling climate conditions is height. Because the average 300 m altitude drops to about 1.8 ° C. For this reason, the average annual temperature is 20 ° C in Belo Norizonte city, 850 m high, located at 20 ° south latitude. It is often snowing at 900 meters high plateaus in southern Brazil.

Vegetation and Animals

Plants are often closely linked to climate and soil conditions. Brazilian plants are examined in three groups.

Forests: Almost half of Brazil is covered with forests. Forests are grouped into four main groups: Selva, mata, araucaris, caatinya. Trees in the equatorial shallow rainforest in the Amazon Basin are called “selva”. It is the largest tropical rainforest forest in the world.

A very significant term among the terms of agriculture is the term “mata”, which shed half of the leaves of the tropical leaves of Eastern Brazil. These forests are a symbol of good land, humus and large farms in Brazil. These trees are cut and organic soils are obtained for agriculture.

The “araucaria” tree found in the forests in the southern high mountains of Brazil is widely used as construction timber in Brazil. It is used as a building material to shape concrete that is poured especially in rapidly developing cities. However, due to the fact that too many cuts are made, they are in danger of extinction. The planting forest called Caatinga is located in the northeastern part of the country. Here are locusts and desert plants.

Savanlar: In general, a large part of the central part of Brazil in terms of grassland. Brasilia, the new capital city of Brasilia, was established in this savanna region. The meadows in North America aren’t as much of a private land.

Grasslands: The main grasslands called Campos are located in the south of Brazil and some well-watered central plateaus. The Amazon region also has pasture lands.

In Brazil, animals differ widely in terms of animals, birds, and insects. Compared to Asia, Africa or even North America, there are no large mammals in Brazil. The forests in the north are rich in animals, in particular monkeys and birds. Some animals, such as fish, are used commercially. Insects are a serious threat to agriculture. More than 200 types of venomous snakes are available. However, snakes rarely appear in residential areas. Many wild animals have disappeared due to hunting.
Population and Social Life

Population: Brazil has great differences in terms of its social structure. The southern parts are more urbanized, more industrialized (including agriculture) and have political and social weight.

The northern and northeastern parts are rural, but rather aristocratic. For this reason, when historians talk about Brazil, they distinguish between the aristocratic class engaged in agriculture in the north and northeast and the industrialized democratic social class in the south.

The population growth in Brazil is very high. At the end of the twentieth century, it is estimated that it will be one of the most populous countries in the world: Brazilian population consists of four ethnic groups: Indigenous Indians, ColonistPorteans, African Negroes, and migrants from Europe and other countries since 1850. According to the census records, 62% of the population is whites, 11% are black people and 27% are brown leather.

However, hybrid populations are increasing due to marriages among different races. There has been a great deal of migration from outside to Brazil. Currently, 300,000 people in Brazil live in Portugal. Between 1875 and 1960, 5 million Europeans migrated to Brazil.
90% of the people belong to the Roman Catholic sect. Around 5% is Protestant. In Brazil, another religious group is Spiritualists. They have more than 2,000 meeting places. The father is the father in the family. However, this dominance has weakened recently. The official language is Portuguese.

Brazilians are poured into the streets during the summer and winter. They open their houses to shady places. Music and samba are popular games. Every kind of sport is done. He has a say in the world especially in football. He won the World Cup in 1958, 1962 and 1970.

Some of the population is located in the settlement centers of the coast. The most important ones are the former capital city of Sao Paulo. The newly established capital of Brasilia, Salvodor and Parto Alegre are other important cities.

Administration: Brazil is a federal republic consisting of 22 states. It is governed by the presidential system. The Parliament consists of the Senate and the National Assembly. Three senators from each state are elected for 8 years, and the deputies are elected for 4 years. The states also have a governor and independent judiciary elected by the people. Every Brazilian who is over 18 years old is required to vote. They cannot vote. Voting is not obligatory for those older than 67 years. Taxes are collected by the states.

Education: The proportion of illiterates is very high in some rural areas. It is low in Sao Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais. 10% of state revenues are allocated for education in the constitution. Primary education is compulsory. There are three types of primary schools. The common one is the state primary school and it is governed by the state administrators. The second is municipal schools and the third is private primary schools. Primary school accepts students for 4 years and 7 or 8 years old. Secondary schools are similar to secondary schools in North America. The first university in Brazil was founded in 1920. However, there were notable developments in the 20th century and new universities were also established. Some universities are under the control of the church. The largest university is the University of Brazil, located in Rio de Janeiro.

Economy

Although the Brazilian economy showed a short pause after the Second World War, it showed a great improvement. However, inflation is among the most advanced countries in the world in terms of%, and reached thousands of figures. The currency was changed twice in 1967 and 1986.

Agriculture: Brazil is a country of agriculture in general, despite the development of its industry. Although more than half of the cultivated land is food products, it still imports some of the food need from outside.

Brazil is the world’s largest coffee producer and exporter. However, this coffee only meets the needs of countries in the Americas. Cotton production is also developed and constitutes the source of foreign exchange with coffee. Although it exports a small portion of sugarcane and cocoa, it uses a large portion of it for domestic consumption.

Precious timber trees, rice, green beans, cotton, coffee, sugarcane, cocoa and corn are the main products. In some parts of the country, a small amount of oranges, bananas, peanuts, tobacco, fiber and some vegetables are grown.

Brazil is one of the leading countries in the world for cattle breeding. Cattle are grown in the farm for abundant meat. In Brazil, agriculture is divided into two groups:

1. Agriculture in northern parts of Rio de Janeiro;
2. In the south of the country, it is mostly agriculture with modern tools.

Forestry and fishery: Araucaria trees in forests in Brazil are widely used in timber. Forests in the Amazon forests enter new production. Beeswax, shelled plants, gum tree, marketable forest products. However, none of these plants have entered the marketing environment yet. Forest products are also used in medicine. Ipeka syrup, cocaine, opium etc. This type of drugs is derived from forest products. Fishing is increasing day by day and contributes greatly to the economy of the country.

Industry: In recent years, exports of Brazilian manufactured industrial products have been more than agricultural products. In order to prevent electricity and energy deficit in the industry, it has established the world’s largest hydro power plant. This Itaipu Dam, which started in 1976, was completed in 1980 and produces more than 100 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity per year. In 1977, nuclear power plants started to operate with the Germans. Iron-steel, woven, paper, glass, wheel, plastic etc. factories are established and become self-sufficient. Annual steel production reached 20 million tons.

Mines: Brazil has rich mineral deposits. From the eighteenth century, rich gold and diamond mines were found. Brazil also has the world’s most abundant iron reserves. In the Amapo region abundant manganese is removed. Oil was found near Salvador. There are very few coal deposits in Brazil.