There is little information about people living in ancient Italy. B.C. There were four distinct civilizations in Italy in the 500s. The Celts in the north, the Etruscans in the central region, the many tribes, including the Romans in the inner and mountain regions, and the Greek minorities in the regions from Naples to Sicily. The foundation date of the Roman Republic was traditionally BC. 595 accepted. This is the year when the last Roman king was exiled. Later, Rome, which benefited from the conflicts among the tribes, ensured its independence.
B.C. In 49, Caesar gave the Gauls full citizenship. The Roman Empire gradually developed. It dominated the whole peninsula in the third century. The imperial center, which was later subjected to attacks by barbarians in the same century, moved from Rome to Milan. During the time of Costantinos, the center was taken to Istanbul.
In the hands of Western Roman Empire which lost Gaul and other provinces, Italy remained alone. When the Eastern Roman Emperor Zenon appointed the Ostrogoths to lead Italy, the Ostrogoths dominated Italy at the end of four years of wars, and the Ostrogoth king became the absolute king of Italy. After this period, the Papal power developed. In 451, Northern Italy was invaded by the Huns of Europe. Rome survived the invasion on the request of the Pope, and until the end of the 6th century political domination remained in the hands of the Papacy.
In 774, Naples, Gueta and Amalfi were subjected to the influx of Muslims. Muslims conquered Sicily. Upon the death of Charlemagne, there were feudal and political fragmentation. Otto (938-1002), who wanted to re-establish the Roman Empire, moved the capital back to Rome. The papal-imperial struggle began again. The cities of northern and central Italy, which benefited from the war between the Pope and the emperors, declared their independence.
In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, cities such as Genoa, Florence, Venice and Milan came to dominate the Italian economy after they emerged as small but powerful states. The influence of the Renaissance, which began in Europe at the beginning of the fifteenth century, was seen in Italy. In the middle of this century, Ottoman raids began on the lands of Italy and the Ottomans took Otranto in 1480.
Political slimming and disintegration in Italy between 1494-1559 led to wars. Italy became the battlefield of the French and Austrian dynasty, which wanted to take over Europe. This war also affected Italy to a great extent.
After the 17th century, a regression period began in Italy. The Kingdom of Naples and Sicily are weakened. In 1796, the French led by Napoleon invaded Italy. French domination lasted a short period of 20 years. During this period, the country merged under the same management. For a short time, the Kingdom of Italy was established in the north. At the Vienna congress of 1815, when the old order was restored, the ideas of a unified Italy were in sight. In 1866, when Venice joined Rome in 1870, Italy eventually became a Kingdom. However, disagreements had not been completely resolved, the North-South and inter-regional disputes and strife continued.
In 1882, along with Austria-Hungary and Germany, the three entered the First World War together with the Alliance and the Allies in 1915. After long struggles, Italy gained the mandate on the territory of Austria, was not satisfied with the agreements made after the war. In Italy, where the war was politically and economically very bad, Dictator Mussolini was forcibly established in 1922. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935-1936. He entered into an alliance with Nazi Germany. Until 1943, Mussolini’s dictatorship was a period of repression and armament.
Italy entered the Second World War in 1940. The Italians were defeated on all fronts. Then they declared war on Germany. Italy was occupied by the Nazis. After the handing over of the Nazis (1945), Italy was heavily damaged by the war.
With a referendum in 1946, the monarchy was abolished. A new Democratic Republic was established. In 1949, Italy became a member of NATO in 1958. The Christian Democratic Party and the Italian Socialist Party, which had ruled Italy for nearly 30 years with various coalitions, suffered a massive loss of votes in the 1992 elections. In May of the same year, parliamentary Oscar Lugi Scoifaro was elected as president by resigning. A new coalition government was then established.
Located in southern Europe, in the north-west of France, Switzerland and Austria in the north, Yugoslavia in the northeast, Adriatic Sea in the east, Italy in the Tirejen west of the west, the peninsula is in the form of a boot. Sardinia, Sicily, Elba and many small islands in the Mediterranean are connected to Italy. Northern Italy consists of the large alluvial plain of the Po Valley, which is connected to the Alpine Mountains in the north. The Montblanca Hill on the French-Italian border of the Great Alps, one of the highest mountains of Italy, is 4810 m high. The highest peak in Italy is Grand Parodiso and is 4061 meters. The extension of the appennines from north to south is 1125 km. The average height of these mountains is 1200 m. Central Appenins are separated from the sea on the banks of the Adriatic Sea by the narrow hills strip. It is made up of limestone highlands, which are formerly high and barren, with collapsed basins and lakes. South Appenins extend along the shores of the Tyrrhenian Sea. There is a region consisting of hills and small plains with alluvium. These plains are the plains of Toscana, Umbria, Lazio and Campania from north to south.
In this region there are volcanic craters and crater lakes. The volcanoes in operation are located near Naples in the south. The Vesuvius is an active volcano. The Ponci volcano is famous in history. The human sculptures that are petrified with the lavas here are very important in terms of reflecting the life of the society on that day. The volcano Etna in Sicily is an active volcano in Sicily. Italy’s islands in the Mediterranean constitute 16% of the Italian territory.
The most important river is Po. 673 km long, this river rises from the Alps. Other rivers are Tiber and Arno. There are lakes famous for their beauties in the country. Of these, Maggiore, Cono and Garda are the most important.
The Mediterranean climate prevails in Italy. Summer, where the Sahara air is settled, is dry, dry and sunny. The winter season of the Atlantic Ocean is warm, rainy and irregular. Northern Italy cannot benefit from the sea’s softening effect. The climate here is the land climate. Po Plain is cold and foggy in winter, and in summer, there are suffocating humid temperatures. The continuity of the rains towards the northern region increases. There is more rainfall in the spring. Towards the south, the climate gets warmer and the winter months are the most rainy months in the south. Winters are mild and summers are warm.
The average annual rainfall varies between 500 and 800 mm. The average temperature is 1 ° C in winter and 25-26 ° C in summer.
Vegetation and animals: Italy does not have a rich vegetation. Because of the Mediterranean climate, plants can last for long periods of dry and hot summers. Forests cover 21% of the country’s territory. Forests mostly contain oak, acgürgen and chestnut trees. Uncooked soils are covered with drought-resistant coarse weeds and maquis. In low parts, there are forests covered with trees belonging to the species of the conifer. The underside of these forms deciduous trees.
Due to the fact that the people of Italy are very interested in hunting, the number of wild animals has decreased. There are wild animals such as mountain goats, wolves and deer living in the Alps today.
Mines: The country is poor in terms of mineral resources. The existing coal and iron deposits are not sufficient. Natural gas, oil and sulfur are extracted in Sicily. Antimony, prite, boron and largely mercury are obtained in Toscona. In the coastal mountains of Toscona, a significant amount of marble is extracted. There are fertile methane gas deposits in Po Plain.
Population and Social Life
The population of Italy is 57.158.000. In Italy, population growth has become an issue. Because the birth rate is very high. There is a great migration from Italy to foreign countries. 7 million people have migrated to foreign countries in half a century.
Italy is made up of eleven regions. All of these regions, even in cities, use separate dialects. They never agree with the people in one of these regions. According to linguists, there are 50 polishes in Italy. Florence is officially used. In schools, this language is taught and used.
Education: In Italy, basic education between 6 and 14 years of age is compulsory and free of charge. After this education, high school is five years. There are 288 universities in the country. Higher education is paid.
Religion: A large part of the population belongs to the Catholic sect of Christianity. There are very few Protestant and Jewish.
Sports: Sport is very advanced in Italy, football has become a national sport. 7342 sports clubs and 9750 teams from these clubs are participating in official matches. There are 205.430 players in these teams. Italians, football, athletics, boxing, fencing, riding have shown success in many sports, such as riding, have had a say in the world sports field.
According to the 1948 Constitution, Italy is a democratic republic with two legislatures (the House of Representatives and the Senate), each of which is elected for five years. The House of Representatives has 630 members. The President of the Republic shall be elected by the Assembly for seven years. The country is divided into twenty regions. These regions are autonomous to some extent. There are also five main regions that have their own management. The established coalition governments have not been continuing for a long time and are frequently elected.
After the Second World War, it became one of the main industrial countries with a big economic development starting in 1950. After 1979, the economy saw declines. The basis for this was a 7.6% unemployed and 21.2% inflation rate. 48.6% of the workforce is employed in the industrial sector.
Agriculture: 18% of the working population is engaged in agriculture, 31% of their land is workable and 17% is agricultural. The main agricultural products are sugar beet, wheat, rice, vegetables, grapes and olive. Northern Italy, covering 37% of the production area, gives half of the total production. Those who live in the mountains provide their livelihood from the forest. The inhabitants of the large valleys grow grain, grapes and fruit. There are corn fields and mulberry in the high level in the Po Plain. Wheat is grown at the foot of appennines. Southern Italy agriculture is inefficient. Although the production area covers 63% of the treated land, it gives half of the total agricultural production. The agricultural areas are as follows: naked fields, fruit gardens, both fruit and grain-growing fields. Wheat and pods are grown in these fields.
Characteristics of Italian agriculture: Grain constitutes 22% of the agricultural production and 24% of the cultivation of trees. Grows in tobacco and linen as industrial plants. In many parts of Italy the soil is weak and water is scarce even though the planting is continuous. Italy grows wheat and corn in general. It is the biggest rice producer in Europe. It is the first in the world in olive oil production. In spite of all this, Italy cannot meet its needs in terms of nutrients.
Livestock: In Italy, livestock is considered to be developed according to soil width. In the country are fed cattle, goats, sheep. Cattle are fed in the high parts of the mountains. The dairy industry is highly developed. World famous cheese is obtained. The country’s animal protein and fat needs are met. In the low parts of the mountains are fed sheep in fallowlands.
Industry: 36% of the population is employed, while most of the industry and investments are concentrated in the north. Major industries are weaving (especially silk), chemical, machinery, motor vehicles, oil processing and food fields. The Fiat car industry has a worldwide reputation in the motor vehicle industry. It employs a large work force. The food industry is well developed in pasta and canned food. In the Italian industry, raw materials and energy resources are generally weak. This deficit is closed with imports. The distribution of natural gas, which has been recently removed, to industrial zones and the establishment of hydroelectric power plants in the Alps has closed the energy deficit to a great extent. Transport difficulties affect the industry negatively.
Trade: The foreign trade table reflects the trends of the Italian economy. Raw materials such as cotton, crude oil, wool, ferrous metals constitute nearly 50% of imports. 40-42% of the exports are composed of machinery, leveled petrochemical products, cotton woven fabrics and automobiles. So it is processed as raw material, processed and sold. Other goods exported by Italy are shoes, typewriters, olive oil and olive. Imported goods are primarily mines, wheat and oil. The Italian sea fleet is one of the largest fleets in the world. There is a close link between Italian trade and maritime transport. The deficit in the balance of Italian payments is closed through the tourism sector. Tourism sector is very developed. Italy, which has many touristic facilities, is rich in history and culture. Italy is an attractive country for tourists, with many developments and innovations throughout history. As a member of the EEC, most of its trade is in the countries that are members of the EEC, with the USA and Saudi Arabia.
Transportation: Italy also has 302.403 km highway. The length of the railways is 19,559 km, of which only 7395 is not electric. Italian Airlines travels all over the world. There are 21 international, 32 national and 75 club airports in the country.
The sea trade fleet consists of 2620 ships with a capacity of 11,867,300 gross tons. Major ports are Genoa, Venice, Trieste, Toranto Naples and La Spezia.