There is little information about people living in ancient Italy. B.C. There were four distinct civilizations in Italy in the 500s. The Celts in the north, the Etruscans in the central region, the many tribes, including the Romans in the inner and mountain regions, and the Greek minorities in the regions from Naples to Sicily. The foundation date of the Roman Republic was traditionally BC. 595 accepted. This is the year when the last Roman king was exiled. Later, Rome, which benefited from the conflicts among the tribes, ensured its independence.

B.C. In 49, Caesar gave the Gauls full citizenship. The Roman Empire gradually developed. It dominated the whole peninsula in the third century. The imperial center, which was later subjected to attacks by barbarians in the same century, moved from Rome to Milan. During the time of Costantinos, the center was taken to Istanbul.

In the hands of Western Roman Empire which lost Gaul and other provinces, Italy remained alone. When the Eastern Roman Emperor Zenon appointed the Ostrogoths to lead Italy, the Ostrogoths dominated Italy at the end of four years of wars, and the Ostrogoth king became the absolute king of Italy. After this period, the Papal power developed. In 451, Northern Italy was invaded by the Huns of Europe. Rome survived the invasion on the request of the Pope, and until the end of the 6th century political domination remained in the hands of the Papacy.

In 774, Naples, Gueta and Amalfi were subjected to the influx of Muslims. Muslims conquered Sicily. Upon the death of Charlemagne, there were feudal and political fragmentation. Otto (938-1002), who wanted to re-establish the Roman Empire, moved the capital back to Rome. The papal-imperial struggle began again. The cities of northern and central Italy, which benefited from the war between the Pope and the emperors, declared their independence.

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, cities such as Genoa, Florence, Venice and Milan came to dominate the Italian economy after they emerged as small but powerful states. The influence of the Renaissance, which began in Europe at the beginning of the fifteenth century, was seen in Italy. In the middle of this century, Ottoman raids began on the lands of Italy and the Ottomans took Otranto in 1480.

Political slimming and disintegration in Italy between 1494-1559 led to wars. Italy became the battlefield of the French and Austrian dynasty, which wanted to take over Europe. This war also affected Italy to a great extent.

After the 17th century, a regression period began in Italy. The Kingdom of Naples and Sicily are weakened. In 1796, the French led by Napoleon invaded Italy. French domination lasted a short period of 20 years. During this period, the country merged under the same management. For a short time, the Kingdom of Italy was established in the north. At the Vienna congress of 1815, when the old order was restored, the ideas of a unified Italy were in sight. In 1866, when Venice joined Rome in 1870, Italy eventually became a Kingdom. However, disagreements had not been completely resolved, the North-South and inter-regional disputes and strife continued.

In 1882, along with Austria-Hungary and Germany, the three entered the First World War together with the Alliance and the Allies in 1915. After long struggles, Italy gained the mandate on the territory of Austria, was not satisfied with the agreements made after the war. In Italy, where the war was politically and economically very bad, Dictator Mussolini was forcibly established in 1922. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935-1936. He entered into an alliance with Nazi Germany. Until 1943, Mussolini’s dictatorship was a period of repression and armament.

Italy entered the Second World War in 1940. The Italians were defeated on all fronts. Then they declared war on Germany. Italy was occupied by the Nazis. After the handing over of the Nazis (1945), Italy was heavily damaged by the war.

With a referendum in 1946, the monarchy was abolished. A new Democratic Republic was established. In 1949, Italy became a member of NATO in 1958. The Christian Democratic Party and the Italian Socialist Party, which had ruled Italy for nearly 30 years with various coalitions, suffered a massive loss of votes in the 1992 elections. In May of the same year, parliamentary Oscar Lugi Scoifaro was elected as president by resigning. A new coalition government was then established.

Physical Structure

Located in southern Europe, in the north-west of France, Switzerland and Austria in the north, Yugoslavia in the northeast, Adriatic Sea in the east, Italy in the Tirejen west of the west, the peninsula is in the form of a boot. Sardinia, Sicily, Elba and many small islands in the Mediterranean are connected to Italy. Northern Italy consists of the large alluvial plain of the Po Valley, which is connected to the Alpine Mountains in the north. The Montblanca Hill on the French-Italian border of the Great Alps, one of the highest mountains of Italy, is 4810 m high. The highest peak in Italy is Grand Parodiso and is 4061 meters. The extension of the appennines from north to south is 1125 km. The average height of these mountains is 1200 m. Central Appenins are separated from the sea on the banks of the Adriatic Sea by the narrow hills strip. It is made up of limestone highlands, which are formerly high and barren, with collapsed basins and lakes. South Appenins extend along the shores of the Tyrrhenian Sea. There is a region consisting of hills and small plains with alluvium. These plains are the plains of Toscana, Umbria, Lazio and Campania from north to south.

In this region there are volcanic craters and crater lakes. The volcanoes in operation are located near Naples in the south. The Vesuvius is an active volcano. The Ponci volcano is famous in history. The human sculptures that are petrified with the lavas here are very important in terms of reflecting the life of the society on that day. The volcano Etna in Sicily is an active volcano in Sicily. Italy’s islands in the Mediterranean constitute 16% of the Italian territory.

The most important river is Po. 673 km long, this river rises from the Alps. Other rivers are Tiber and Arno. There are lakes famous for their beauties in the country. Of these, Maggiore, Cono and Garda are the most important.


The Mediterranean climate prevails in Italy. Summer, where the Sahara air is settled, is dry, dry and sunny. The winter season of the Atlantic Ocean is warm, rainy and irregular. Northern Italy cannot benefit from the sea’s softening effect. The climate here is the land climate. Po Plain is cold and foggy in winter, and in summer, there are suffocating humid temperatures. The continuity of the rains towards the northern region increases. There is more rainfall in the spring. Towards the south, the climate gets warmer and the winter months are the most rainy months in the south. Winters are mild and summers are warm.

The average annual rainfall varies between 500 and 800 mm. The average temperature is 1 ° C in winter and 25-26 ° C in summer.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Italy does not have a rich vegetation. Because of the Mediterranean climate, plants can last for long periods of dry and hot summers. Forests cover 21% of the country’s territory. Forests mostly contain oak, acgürgen and chestnut trees. Uncooked soils are covered with drought-resistant coarse weeds and maquis. In low parts, there are forests covered with trees belonging to the species of the conifer. The underside of these forms deciduous trees.

Due to the fact that the people of Italy are very interested in hunting, the number of wild animals has decreased. There are wild animals such as mountain goats, wolves and deer living in the Alps today.

Mines: The country is poor in terms of mineral resources. The existing coal and iron deposits are not sufficient. Natural gas, oil and sulfur are extracted in Sicily. Antimony, prite, boron and largely mercury are obtained in Toscona. In the coastal mountains of Toscona, a significant amount of marble is extracted. There are fertile methane gas deposits in Po Plain.

Population and Social Life

The population of Italy is 57.158.000. In Italy, population growth has become an issue. Because the birth rate is very high. There is a great migration from Italy to foreign countries. 7 million people have migrated to foreign countries in half a century.

Italy is made up of eleven regions. All of these regions, even in cities, use separate dialects. They never agree with the people in one of these regions. According to linguists, there are 50 polishes in Italy. Florence is officially used. In schools, this language is taught and used.

Education: In Italy, basic education between 6 and 14 years of age is compulsory and free of charge. After this education, high school is five years. There are 288 universities in the country. Higher education is paid.

Religion: A large part of the population belongs to the Catholic sect of Christianity. There are very few Protestant and Jewish.

Sports: Sport is very advanced in Italy, football has become a national sport. 7342 sports clubs and 9750 teams from these clubs are participating in official matches. There are 205.430 players in these teams. Italians, football, athletics, boxing, fencing, riding have shown success in many sports, such as riding, have had a say in the world sports field.

Political Life

According to the 1948 Constitution, Italy is a democratic republic with two legislatures (the House of Representatives and the Senate), each of which is elected for five years. The House of Representatives has 630 members. The President of the Republic shall be elected by the Assembly for seven years. The country is divided into twenty regions. These regions are autonomous to some extent. There are also five main regions that have their own management. The established coalition governments have not been continuing for a long time and are frequently elected.


After the Second World War, it became one of the main industrial countries with a big economic development starting in 1950. After 1979, the economy saw declines. The basis for this was a 7.6% unemployed and 21.2% inflation rate. 48.6% of the workforce is employed in the industrial sector.

Agriculture: 18% of the working population is engaged in agriculture, 31% of their land is workable and 17% is agricultural. The main agricultural products are sugar beet, wheat, rice, vegetables, grapes and olive. Northern Italy, covering 37% of the production area, gives half of the total production. Those who live in the mountains provide their livelihood from the forest. The inhabitants of the large valleys grow grain, grapes and fruit. There are corn fields and mulberry in the high level in the Po Plain. Wheat is grown at the foot of appennines. Southern Italy agriculture is inefficient. Although the production area covers 63% of the treated land, it gives half of the total agricultural production. The agricultural areas are as follows: naked fields, fruit gardens, both fruit and grain-growing fields. Wheat and pods are grown in these fields.

Characteristics of Italian agriculture: Grain constitutes 22% of the agricultural production and 24% of the cultivation of trees. Grows in tobacco and linen as industrial plants. In many parts of Italy the soil is weak and water is scarce even though the planting is continuous. Italy grows wheat and corn in general. It is the biggest rice producer in Europe. It is the first in the world in olive oil production. In spite of all this, Italy cannot meet its needs in terms of nutrients.

Livestock: In Italy, livestock is considered to be developed according to soil width. In the country are fed cattle, goats, sheep. Cattle are fed in the high parts of the mountains. The dairy industry is highly developed. World famous cheese is obtained. The country’s animal protein and fat needs are met. In the low parts of the mountains are fed sheep in fallowlands.

Industry: 36% of the population is employed, while most of the industry and investments are concentrated in the north. Major industries are weaving (especially silk), chemical, machinery, motor vehicles, oil processing and food fields. The Fiat car industry has a worldwide reputation in the motor vehicle industry. It employs a large work force. The food industry is well developed in pasta and canned food. In the Italian industry, raw materials and energy resources are generally weak. This deficit is closed with imports. The distribution of natural gas, which has been recently removed, to industrial zones and the establishment of hydroelectric power plants in the Alps has closed the energy deficit to a great extent. Transport difficulties affect the industry negatively.

Trade: The foreign trade table reflects the trends of the Italian economy. Raw materials such as cotton, crude oil, wool, ferrous metals constitute nearly 50% of imports. 40-42% of the exports are composed of machinery, leveled petrochemical products, cotton woven fabrics and automobiles. So it is processed as raw material, processed and sold. Other goods exported by Italy are shoes, typewriters, olive oil and olive. Imported goods are primarily mines, wheat and oil. The Italian sea fleet is one of the largest fleets in the world. There is a close link between Italian trade and maritime transport. The deficit in the balance of Italian payments is closed through the tourism sector. Tourism sector is very developed. Italy, which has many touristic facilities, is rich in history and culture. Italy is an attractive country for tourists, with many developments and innovations throughout history. As a member of the EEC, most of its trade is in the countries that are members of the EEC, with the USA and Saudi Arabia.

Transportation: Italy also has 302.403 km highway. The length of the railways is 19,559 km, of which only 7395 is not electric. Italian Airlines travels all over the world. There are 21 international, 32 national and 75 club airports in the country.

The sea trade fleet consists of 2620 ships with a capacity of 11,867,300 gross tons. Major ports are Genoa, Venice, Trieste, Toranto Naples and La Spezia.




In the early ages, the country occupied by the Iberian tribes (Lusitanians), BC. It became a province of the Romans in the 1st century. Then the Vandals, Suevler (a German tribe) were invaded by Visigoths from the 5th century to the 8th century. In 711, the country fell into the hands of Muslims. Andalusian Umayyads (756-1031), Teva 11.if-i Müluk (11th century) Islamic states were established and dominated the region. The region between the Douro and Minho rivers into the tenth century was called Terra Portucallis. Portucallis consists of a combination of Latin Portas (port) and Calle (castle).

Portugal became an independent kingdom in 1143. His borders widened with his battles against the Merinis. Towards the middle of the thirteenth century, the present borders of Portugal were completed. Portuguese sailors spread throughout the world in the 15th century. In the next century, they established a large colonial empire in Asia, Africa and South America, holding most of the trade between Europe and the East. In 1598, in a battle against the cities of Morocco, when Portugal suffered a heavy defeat, the empire suddenly collapsed. Spain benefited from the weakening of the country, Portugal in 1580 by adding to the territory, managed up to 1640.

Portugal became independent again in 1688 under the Lisbon Treaty. But Portugal lost its former glory, and an alliance agreement was signed with Britain in 1703 until the 20th century. In the 19th century, he had to fight against Napoleon because he was an ally with the British. While the country was at war with France, in 1811 the king and his family took refuge in Brazil. In this period the empire began to collapse. When Brazil declared its independence in 1822, Portugal lost its only source of great wealth.

The whole of the nineteenth century and early 20th century was a period of economic and political instability for Portugal. Violent partisan struggles, civil wars pushed the country into turmoil. The king was killed in 1908, two years later in 1910 was declared a republic. The republic period, which lasted for sixteen years, was quite unstable, during which forty-eight governments were formed and at least twenty-five coup attempts. In 1926, he took over the army administration and for forty-eight years the country was ruled by General Franko as a dictatorship. When the government was dismissed as a result of a coup d’etat by young officers on April 25, 1974, a military junta led by General Antonio de Spinola took control. President Spinola was forced to resign at the end of September of the same year as a result of pressure from leftist officers. In April 1975, despite the fact that the democratic parties won 64% of the vote, the Soviet-backed communist party increased its influence. Banks, insurances and industry were nationalized. The new constitution, which came into force in 1976, has also clearly demonstrated the goal of transition to socialism. In the general elections held after the new Constitution, no party had achieved a majority. Socialist Party President Mário Soares established a minority government. The President of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Antánio Ramalho Eones was elected. The government headed by Mário Soares resigned in December 1977. The coalition government established in January and a series of coalitions formed thereafter were short-lived. After the elections in 1980, the center-right Democratic Alliance came to power with a large majority. This government made major changes to the constitution and opened the way for civilian administration. In 1982, upon the government crisis, the President decided to hold early elections. The Socialist Party of Portugal, which became the first party in the elections held in April 1983, formed a coalition with the Social Democratic Party. Portugal was taken to the EEC on January 1, 1986. Soares was elected as the first civilian president in February 1986 after a break of 60 years. In July 1987, the Social Democratic Party increased the number of its seats to a large extent, leading to a stable coalition government. In the elections held in 1991, the Social Democratic Party maintained its first place.

Physical Structure

Portugal is mostly covered with low and medium-high land. More than 70% of the soil is below 400 meters above sea level. The Tagus River divides the country into two distinct regions. The north of the Tagus River is largely mountainous. In particular, 90% of the land is over 400 meters north of the Douro River.

The large plateaus were split into deep valleys. In some places the mountains exceed 50 m inside and 910 m above sea level. There is a triangular coastal plain between the Douro and Tagus rivers and there are several large valleys in the interior. The Serra de Estrela Range, which stretches towards Spain, reaches a height of 1991 meters in Torre Torre (Portugal’s highest peak). The other great rivers other than the Tagus and Douro, which spilled into the Atlantic Ocean from this region, are Minho, Mondego and Zezere, which form part of the Spanish border in the north. Approximately 60% of the territory to the south of the Tagus River is below 200 m. It is an area covered by undulating plains and low plateaus. High hills are rare and only a mountain range called Serra de Sao Mamede exceeds 900 m. The only major river in this region is the Guadiana River, which flows in the north-south direction and forms a wide valley and poured into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern tip of the country.


In the north of Portugal, temperate (moderate) climate and a warm climate prevail in the south. Cold winds bringing rain from the west during the winter. But when it comes to summer, there is a warm wave of dry weather from the south and little rain. As the northern part has a colder climate than the south, it receives more precipitation on most days of the year than it was exposed to the ocean winds blowing from the west. As it goes southward from the Tagus River, rainfall decreases and hot-dry summer continues for a long time.

The temperatures on the Portuguese coast are almost the same everywhere. In Lisbon, in the middle of the west coast, temperatures range from 7 ° C to 15 ° C in January and from 18 ° C to 28 ° C in July.

Natural Resources

Approximately 35% of Portugal is forested. 90% of the forests are covered with oak trees. Other important trees are chestnuts, figs, carob and almonds. Portuguese oak is the world’s first in making cork. Most wild animals, like wild rabbits and foxes, are small. The deer is located in mountainous areas. The underground riches are tungsten, copper, iron, marble, granite and slate.

Population and Social Life

In Portugal, which has a population of 10,372,000 people do not differ in terms of ethnicity. Most of the Portuguese are a bit shorter than the average European average, with black eyes and black eyes. The population of the present-day population is composed of people coming to the Iberian Peninsula at different times. These are Celts, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Jews, Germanic tribes, Arabs and Berbers.

The Portuguese have been migrating to the world since the 15th century. The government seriously prohibited immigration in the 1960s in order to maintain its workforce. However, thousands of young Portuguese people continue to leave the country unlawfully and flee to France and other Western European countries for more wages. At the same time, there is migration from the villages to the city centers with new industries. The most important city in the middle of the west coast is Lisbon, with a population of 2,063,000. Other important cities are Oporto, Amadora, Coimba, Borreiro, Braga, Almada and Coimbra.

The official language of the country is Portuguese. 98% of the population is Roman Catholic, but there are few thousand Protestants and few Jews.

In Portugal, primary education is compulsory and starts from the age of 6. In the country where the literacy rate is 70%, the higher education is carried out in the universities of Lisbon, Oporto and Coimbra, the Technical and Catholic University of Lisbon and in different institutes.

Political Life

Portekiz, which entered into a socialist administration with the new constitution which was put into force in April 1976, is divided into 18 administrative regions. The main governing bodies are the president, the revolutionary council and the government. The Revolutionary Council consisted of 4 officers and 14 officers elected from the armed forces. Portugal is a member of NATO.

The elections in 1980 were mostly won by the Democratic Alliance, centered on the center-right. The new government has made many changes in the constitution and opened the way for civilian administration. The Social Democrat Party won the elections in October 1985, defending the free market economy. In February 1986, Mário Soares won the presidential election and became the first civilian president after a hiatus of 60 years. In the same year Portugal was taken to the EEC. With the amendment made in 1989, socialism statements were removed from the constitution.


Portugal is one of the least developed countries in Europe and the level of life in the country is low. 31% of the working population works in agriculture, 35% in industry and trade and 34% in various services. The manufacturing and construction industry provides more than two-fifths of the gross national product. Agriculture provides only one third of the gross national product.

In Portugal, food industry, textile, furniture and construction sector have a significant place since. There are milling, sugar, fish, canned and olive oil factories related to the food industry. The main products of the textile industry are cotton, twisted wool yarn and dress. In connection with the clothing industry, shoe manufacturing has also been developed. Forest riches; It is used in the production of paper pulp, paper, bottle cork, tar, resin, nephth oil and especially in furniture.

One of the most important new industrial branches is the electronic machinery and its auxiliary components. The establishment of oil refineries has led to the development of the petrochemical industry. Small scale iron and steel industry is available. Shipbuilding and ship repair facilities made Portugal the first in Europe in this sector.

Approximately 55% of the land in Portugal is suitable for agriculture. Most of the arable land is grown in grain (wheat and rye). However, in most places the yield is low and the soil is inefficient and less likely to be erosion. The labor force is particularly insufficient in the south. The country has to import wheat and other grains.

In Portugal, vine gardens occupy 10% of the cultivated land. Olive oil production in the country is also advanced. Fruit trees grow apples and pears in the northern half of the country, oranges in the south.

Although the mineral deposits are very diverse in Portugal, most of them are inadequate and cannot be operated at the desired level due to inadequate places or inadequate funds. The important minerals extracted are tungsten, iron, sulfur copper, marble, granite and slate. Portugal imports all the oil it needs.

Portugal exports twisted wool yarn, fabric, clothes, canned fish, bottle cork, pulp and paper, electrical appliances. Portugal does most of its trade with the European Common Market countries of which it is a member.

In Portugal, the highways are 44,953 km. 44.680 km of it is covered with asphalt. The railways are 3600 km and are lower than other Western European countries. Air transport is available from 13 airports. The Portuguese trade fleet is large and has a capacity of 750,000 tonnes.




Today Celtic tribes living in Helvetia, Switzerland The city was considered a part of the Roman Empire for five centuries after being defeated by the Roman Emperor Julius Caesar in 58 BC. A.D. The Burgonds, which accepted Christianity in the 5th century, settled on both sides of the Jura’s Lake Geneva. The Germans settled in the Rhine and the Lower Aarhus basin. After the region, Rome joined the Germanic Empire. Feudal states began to be established from the eleventh century onwards. In the thirteenth century, the Habsburgs ruled central and western Switzerland. In 1291, the three cantons of Schwyzuri Nidwalden united to form a defense alliance against the Habsburgs. Thus the Swiss Confederation (named after Schwzy, the largest of the cantons) was born. In later centuries, the Swiss attacked several times with weapons to defend independence against the Habsburgs. In the fourteenth century, Luzirn, Zürich, Glaruszug and Bern merged with the first three cantons. In 1481 Appenzell joined Friborg, Solothurn in 1501, Basel in 1501, and in 1513. Switzerland, which developed its military power, adopted the policy of neutrality. Protestants were defeated in the canton conflict during the reform. In 1648, the independence of Switzerland was formally adopted by the Treaty of Westphalia. During the Napoleonic wars, the French occupied the country (1798). Napoleon united the cantons into a federation and founded the Republic of Helvet. After the defeat of Napoleon, the cantons were not broken. At the Vienna Congress of 1815, Switzerland’s neutrality was accepted. In 1847, a civil war broke out in the country. Some cantons wanted to establish a confederation, and some did not. The Swiss Confederation was established in 1848, when those who fought for the confederation won the war. Switzerland remained neutral in the First and Second World Wars. It is not connected to any block. The reason for this is that all the states of the world, statesmen have had confidant accounts in Swiss banks. In 1978, a decision was made to establish a new canton with a referendum and the Jura canton was established on 1 January 1979.

Physical Structure Switzerland is the most mountainous country in Europe. 3/4 of the land is covered with mountains. The Jura Mountains, which extend along the northwestern French border, are separated from the Alps, which cover the southern part of the country, by the Mitteland plateau. The Swiss Alps include the central part extending from Mont-Blanc to the Orts. The southern part of the country, which constitutes a large part of the country, is composed of the Alps of the Alps, the Pennine Alps, the Lepontine Alps and the eastern Rehetia Alps. The highest peaks are the Mente Rosa and Matterhorn (4478 m) hills located in the Pennine Alps. The highest peaks in the Bern Alps are the Jungster (4166 m) with the Finsteraarrhorn (4274 m).

The Swiss high plateau is the plateau between the Alps and the Jura Mountains. This highland is 1000 m high. It is also referred to as the Swiss Hills. This highland is covered with meadows and conifer forests.

Two large rivers of Europe emerge from the Swiss Alps. The Rhine River originates from two springs flowing into Lake Knostanz. Rhone .ni source is the southwestern glaciers. The Ticino River flows south. There are many lakes in Switzerland. The largest of these is Lake Constance, which borders Germany and Austria. The other important lakes are Zürich, Lulerne, Neuchatel and Leman.


The climate of Switzerland is very different. Although the weather is dry and open in the Rhetia Alps, the Ticino Canton has a humid temperature, while the Magiore and the Lugarna Lakes dominate the Mediterranean climate. The high hills of the mountains remain covered with snow throughout the year. The climate is usually mutedil. In all cantons except Ticinoso canton, the average winter temperature is below 0 ° C. In summer, the average temperature reaches 27 ° C.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Forests constitute 23% of the country’s territory. 70% of the forests are covered with coniferous trees and the rest is covered with broadleaf trees. Forests include oak, beech, walnut, pine and chestnut trees. Forests provide half of Switzerland’s timber needs. On the high Alpine slopes are mountain goats, rabbits, marmot and prey birds.

Mines: Switzerland is poor in terms of underground resources. There are few coal deposits in the country. Salt deposits are important.

Population and Social Life

Its population is 6,911,000 and a large part of the population is concentrated in cities and highlands. The major cities are Bern, Zürich, Basel and Geneva. There are still significant differences in terms of tradition, language and language in cantons and villages. In Switzerland, four languages ??are used as the official language. 65% of the public speaks German, 18% speaks French, 12% speaks Italian and 1% speaks Romaş.

Religious: People are Christian, 49.4% Catholic, 47.8% is Protestant.

Education: The level of education in Switzerland is very high. Literacy rate is 100%. Teaching between 6 and 14 years is compulsory. 25 different education systems in the country control cantons. There are 8 universities and 2 technical colleges in Switzerland. Seven of the universities are world famous and students from various countries are educated in these schools.

Political Life

The Constitution, still in force in Switzerland, entered into force in 1848. According to the constitution, Switzerland is composed of 20 sovereigns and 6 half-cantons. The federal council consists of a state council of 44 members and a 200-member national council elected directly by the people. The cantons, which are governed by the state council, send two members, each of which is half cantons. The Federal Council consists of seven members elected by the Federal Assembly for four years. The president and vice-president of the confederation, which are members of the Federal Council, are elected by the Bundestag every year.


The basis of the Swiss economy is the agriculture-based food industry, the chemical and the pharmaceutical industry. Animal husbandry is also very important.

Agriculture: Agricultural land in Switzerland is often too high to be studied. 6% of the soil can be planted. 6% of the people engaged in agriculture. The main products grown mainly are potatoes, rye and corn. Viticulture developed. On the shores of the lake and mountain foothills are made. Most grown fruits are apples, grapes, pears, plums and cherries.

Livestock: In Switzerland, livestock holds a big place in the economy. Since half of the land consists of grasslands and grasslands that grow constantly, it is a valuable natural resource for livestock. Goats and sheep are grown in high regions. Studies in the field of animal husbandry are carried out to grow cattle and cows, and dairy animals. The amount of milk obtained is approximately 3.650.000 tons and the cheese production is 129.000 tons. The cheese sector is world famous. It has a worldwide reputation in chocolate, which is counted in dairy products.

Industry: In Switzerland, 40% of the workforce is employed in the industrial sector. The steel industry in the country has developed. For this purpose it receives iron ore from outside. Heavy industry products such as machinery, locomotives and turbines are manufactured. The production of electrical machines, scientific and optical instruments has an important place in the country industry. The chemical and pharmaceutical industry is well developed. Watchmaking is a famous industrial branch of the country. Swiss watches are world famous. 90% of industrial production is exported.

Trade: Most of the industrial products are exported. Exported goods include electric motors, machinery, locomotives, turbines, woven products, dairy products, watches, chocolate, pharmaceuticals and chemical products. Switzerland is the major banking center that plays an important role in the world’s financial life. 10% of Swiss people deal with banking. Swiss banking and insurance provide huge income from the source. Another important source of income is tourism. The Swiss summer winter undergoes the influx of tourists all year round. Imported oil comes from the beginning of the substances. This is followed by other industrial raw materials and nutrients.

Transportation: There are 64,855 km of highway in Switzerland. 1.057 km of this is connected to the international road network. The total length of the railways is 4991 km. There are also special lines of 830 km. Air transport is provided by Swissair, established in 1931. The sea trade fleet consists of 30 ships and has a load capacity of 294,304 gross tons. The most important port is Basel.




Various states were established throughout the history of the region. Founded in the ninth century, the first Russian state, the Principality of Kiev, was destroyed by the Mongol attacks in the 13th century. In Western Ukraine, the Principality of Galicia and Volynia continued its dominance from the 11th to the 14th century.

Most of the territory of the country was under the domination of Lithuania in the 14th century. After the assassination of the Lublin unit, which made Poland and Lithuania a single federated state, was procured in 1569, the territory of Ukraine was de facto dominated by Poland. The leader of the Zaporozhye Cossacks, Bogdan Khmelnynik, rebelled against the Polish government and in 1651 asked the Russian tsar for help. This caused a war between the Russian Tsarist and Poland. After the war, the lands east of the Dnieper River and Kiev were dominated by Russians. When the Crimea entered the Russian domination in 1783, new settlements began to be established on the Black Sea coast.

In the eighteenth century, when the Polish lands were shared, the Ukrainian lands to the west of the Dnieper were dominated by Russian rule, while Galicia was dominated by Austria. In the nineteenth century, when nationalist movements became widespread in Ukraine, the Russian tsar resorted to severe measures to suppress these movements. He limited the use of Ukrainian. The Ukrainians, who were under the control of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, were more comfortable. At the beginning of the First World War, the Ukrainians in Galicia developed their own cultural, political and religious institutions.

After the 1917 revolution in Russia, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was established in Kharkov. Upon the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ukrainians established the National Republic of Western Ukraine in 1918 by taking over the administrative center of Galicia, Lemberg. This state was united with the Ukrainian National Republic in 1919, but in June 1919 the Ukrainian soldier was removed from Galicia. The former Ukrainian cities of Bukovina Romania and the territory of Hungary were dominated by the newly formed Czechoslovakia. While the various states worked to seize the domination of Ukraine between 1917-21, they did not succeed. In 1924, Ukraine became one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union.

Until the Second World War, Ukraine quickly industrialized and implemented a collective collective policy in agriculture. The villagers reacted to this big act. During the Stalin period the pressures in the region were increased and the use of the Ukrainian banned. Only Ukrainians living in Czechoslovakia had broad political and cultural rights.

With the signing of the German-Soviet non-aggression pact in 1939, the lands of Eastern Galicia and Western Volnia, which were dominated by Poland, were left to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. In June 1941, the Germans attacked Russia and soon occupied Ukraine. The Germans, who were initially supported by the Ukrainians, later encountered guerrilla resistance. All the territories of Ukraine came under the domination of Russia after the Germans were defeated at the end of the war.

The reforms that began in Russia in 1989 have caused radical changes in Ukraine. The first multiparty elections were held. The country entered a new political and economic period. Ukraine declared its independence in 1991 and was one of the founders of the Commonwealth of Independent States in the same year.

Physical Structure

The territory of the country occupies most of the Eastern European Plain. To the northeast is an extension of the Central Russian Plateau. The Black Sea coast extending along the shores of the Black Sea forms the Crimean Plain on the Crimean peninsula. The length of the Carpathian Mountains in the west exceeds 240 km. The Crimean Mountains between the Black Sea and the Sea of ??Azov occur in three parallel places parallel to each other. These are valleys.

The main rivers are the Dniester and the Dnieper rivers and flow into the Azov-Black Sea Basin. A part of the Pripet Marsh and an inland sea, the Sea of ??Azov remains within the borders of the country.

Natural Resources

Mines: Ukraine; manganese ore is one of the richest regions in the world. There is also a significant amount of iron ore.

Population and Social Life

The population of Ukraine is 51.944.000 and the population density is 86ın. 72.7% of the population is Ukrainian, 22% is Russian and 5.3% is composed of other nationalities. 67% of the people live in cities and 33% live in villages. The main cities are Sevastopol, Odessa, Kharkiv, Denetsk, Krivay Rog and Zaporojye.

In Ukraine, education between 7-17 years of age is compulsory and free of charge. Education is carried out in Ukrainian. There are also schools where Russian, Moldavian, Polish, Bulgarian, Hungarian, French, German, Spanish and English are used. There are more than 140 higher education institutions in the country and many scientific studies related to the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Ukraine. There is no literacy in Ukraine.


The economy is based on agriculture and industry. The machine is widely used in agriculture. There are about eight thousand collective farms (Kolkhoz) around the country and around 1700 state farms (Sovhoz). These farms feed on cattle for meat and milk. In addition, cereals, vegetables, potatoes and sugar beet are grown.

The steel industry in Ukraine has improved. There are also factories in the country that produce metallurgy vehicles, diesel locomotives, televisions and tractors. Sun .i fertilizer, sulfuric acid and sugar factories occupy an important place in the economy. Almost all of the energy used in industrial plants is derived from fossil fuels.

Political Life

The highest legislative body in Ukraine is the High Council. The members of the Assembly shall be determined by elections held every five years. The High Assembly appoints the President and members of the Council of Ministers.




From the Second World War, Germany was closed down to the involved zones that were given and controlled by the Allies. On 23 May 1949 the French, British and American Federal Republics were built up. On 7 October 1949 the German Democratic Republic was set up. They framed the Federal Republic.



Germany, situated in Central Europe, in the north of Denmark, in the east of Poland in the south of Austria, in the Czech Republic in the Netherlands we’ve had in Belgium, in Luxembourg, in the nation of the Far is the outskirt with Switzerland.

Situated in the most noteworthy purpose of the South Mountains situated in Zugspitze. (2,962 meters). In the north are the Baltic Sea and the North Sea drift. The center piece of the nation is forested and the north is wearing fields. The Rhine, the Danube and the Elbe Mountain are the biggest streams. In Germany, there are common assets, for example, press, coal, potassium, uranium, copper, petroleum gas and nickel.



Germany’s accomplice has a mellow atmosphere. In the North Atlantic Stream atmosphere, the dampness bearer is influenced by western breezes and hot. The inexhaustible thickness of its seasons. Winters are not very cool, and summers are not exceptionally sweltering. In the eastern areas, more mainland atmosphere is watched.



There is a market economy with a work drive, solid capital structure and low debasement. It has the greatest and most grounded economy in Europe. The world’s fourth biggest economy in the US, China and Silicon. The administration segment utilizes 71 percent of all GDP, industry 28 percent and agribusiness 1 percent. Joblessness rate is 5 percent. He is the most gainful representative on the planet. The fiscal arrangement focus is overseen by the European Central Bank in Frankfurt. Car, pharmaceutical, concoction, data advances and correspondences, steel, vitality and development.



More than 80 million German-made paper is Germany’s second nation. Around 7.7 percent of the populace are transients. The official dialect of the nation is English, Kurdish, Polish and Russian. 67 percent of the nation’s populace can talk a remote dialect.

The most widely recognized religion in the nation is Christianity with 66.8. (30.8 percent Catholic, 30 percent Protestant) 32 percent of the populace – 35 of them expressed that they don’t have confidence in a religion. Tolerating Islam is the second biggest religion. In 2011, 2.9 percent of the populace expressed that they were Muslims.