It is believed that the first inhabitants of Japan were migrants from the islands of East Asia and South Pacific. The ancestors of the Japanese people are now known as the Yamato race and are known as M.S. In the 3rd and 4th centuries warriors and clans are believed to be the people of the same race.

At the end of the fourth century, contact was established between the kingdoms of Japan and the Korean Peninsula. After this date, China’s cultural influences were seen in Japan. He had entered here in 538 through Confucian religion and then through Buddhism, India, China, Korea.

The country’s first and permanent government center was established in Nara at the beginning of the 8th century. This empire continued for 74 years between 710 and 784. In 794 a new government center was established in Kyoto. This is where the emperor lived for a thousand years. The move of the capital to Kyoto was the beginning of the Heian era which continued until 1192.

In the Battle of Danoura in 1185, the Minamotos prevailed by destroying the rival Taira King.

The seizure of power by Minemotos has been the beginning of a seven-century period of feudal rule under the leadership of military leaders called Shogun. In 1192, Minamotolar established the government center in Kamakura near Tokyo.

In 1213, the ruling came into power from the Minomotos, the Hogos, which maintained military rule until 1333. During this period, the Mongols attacked North Kyushu twice in 1274 and 1281. The Mongols, who failed in both wars, also withdrew from Japan with the influence of the typhoons.

The short-term empires between 1333 and 1338 were followed by Ashikaga Takauji, a new military administration established in Muromachi, Kyoto. This government continued for more than two hundred years from 1338 to 1578.

In the sixteenth century, Europeans set foot in Japan. In the meantime, missionaries tried to spread Christianity here. The Japanese leaders then banned all foreigners from entering Japan, with the exception of the Dutch and Chinese traders, because they believed that Christianity and western considerations would be harmful to Japan. This small island, with Dutch merchants for two and a half centuries, has been the only point of contact between Japan and the outside world.

In 1853, the American Komodor Matthev C. Peter entered the Gulf of Tokyo with his fleet of four ships, and returned to Japan the following year, convincing the Japanese to sign a friendship agreement with his country. This agreement was followed by agreements with Russia, Great Britain and the Netherlands during the same year. These agreements turned into trade agreements four years later.

In the period of ten years until the collapse of the feudal system of Tokogaua Shogunki in 1867, a great confusion reigned.

Under the command of Emperor Meigi, Japan developed into a modern nation with modern industries, political organizations and a modern model of society. Japan fought the Chinese in 1894-1895 and the Russians in 1904 and 1905. Japan won both wars, took the Sakhalin Islands back to Russia in 1875, captured Formosa and Korea, and had some interests in Manchuria. In 1920 Japan had entered the First World War in accordance with the decisions of the Anglo-Japanese Union.

In 1937, the Japan-China War began. In 1939, Japan fought against the Germans in the First World War, and in 1939 a military alliance was established with Germany and Italy. The Japanese, who looked superior in the early years of the war, suffered heavy losses in the following years. American bombs on August 6, 1945 Hiroshima, and the August 9 atomic bombs threw Nagasaki’ye had revealed the outcome of the Second World War. On September 2, 1945, an official delivery agreement was signed with Japan, which agreed to surrender unconditionally on August 14, 1945.

Seven years later, in September 1951, Japan signed the Peace Treaty in San Francisco with 48 states. With this agreement, which entered into force in April 1952, Japan regained its independence. In 1956, Japan was accepted as a 80th state to the United Nations.

Japan, which has reached its present level of prosperity with a great economic development and has gone so far in technical and scientific life after it gained its independence, is a state that has captured almost all world markets. Liberals have been in power since the Second World War.

The Emperor Hirohito, who passed the throne in 1926, died on January 7, 1989. Instead his eldest son, Prince Akihito, passed the throne and was crowned in November 1990.

Physical Structure

Japan consists of four major islands, Hokkoida, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, and hundreds of small islands off the coastline. 80% of the territory of Japan is mountainous. There are currently 60 active and 165 extinct volcanoes in the country. The most famous mountain in the country is Fuji with a height of 3776 m. This mountain is famous for its elegant appearance and magnificent beauty. One-fourth of the country is covered with volcanic rash and ashes. Hokkaido, the main volcano region, is the south of Kiyusiyu with the northern and central parts of Honşu.

There is a large amount of streams in Japan. These streams have a short and rapid flow length. There are also plenty of crater lakes. The largest lake is Lake Biwa.

The topographic image of Japan is sometimes full of very beautiful landscapes and sometimes very scary landscapes. Snow-fed mountain lakes, rocky gorges and noisy rivers, steep mountain peaks and magnificent waterfalls are famous places to attract tourists.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Japan’s natural vegetation and forests constitute 70% of its territory. The subtropical forests of oak, camphor and bamboo trees are located in the south. To the north of this section, there are forests consisting of broad-leaved trees. In these forests; There are birch, beech, oak, poplar and birch.

The most popular tree species in Japan, except Hokkaido, grows in almost all parts of the country and called yerinde sugi Hok or Japanese cedar. Çok Hinoki lar called çok Akamutsu ”with Japanese selvisi called” Akamutsu “after the most grown trees after Sugi’dan comes from.

Mines: Japan is very poor in terms of mineral resources and does not have many of the mines required to feed the industry. In Japan, there are small amounts of coal, lead, zinc, arsenic, bismuth, pyrite, sulfur, limestone, barite, silica stone, feldspar, dolomite and gypsum. It takes its needs from outside.

Population and Social Life

Japan’s population is 123,200,000 and it ranks seventh in terms of population surplus in the world ranking. Due to the small size of the population density is very high. 77% of the people live in cities. 58% of the people living in cities gathered in Tokyo, Osaho and Nagoya. There are seven big cities with a population of over one million. Tokyo, the capital city, has a population of 8,323,699.


Agriculture: Although the majority of the population lives in cities, agriculture is an important part of the Japanese economy. Only 16% of the total land can be planted. In Japan, agriculture is carried out with very modern methods. At the beginning of the product comes rice. The average rice production is 15.000.000 tons. After rice, most wheat, barley, millet, sugar beet, potato and bean are grown. In addition, tobacco, cotton, tea, as well as a large part of the large variety of fruits are grown.

Livestock: Lack of good grains has led to a relatively small size of livestock. Cattle, sheep and chickens are grown in farms. Although the number of them is small, the product obtained is numerous.

Forestry: Forests cover two-thirds of Japan’s total land. These forests are the main source of the country’s main building material, providing a large portion of the pulp required for paper production. The total number of employees in the forestry and timber industry is around four million. In recent years, however, it has had to import timber in response to increased demand. Lumber is second only to oil.

Fishing: Since Japan is surrounded by seas on four sides, fishing has developed. Very well equipped with modern ships almost all around the world makes fishing. On average, 15 million tons of fish are consumed in the country, and only a very small amount is exported. It is the first in the world in terms of fish production. However, Japanese fishing has declined in recent years.

Industry: Japan is the third industrial country in the world. The industry is mostly concentrated on heavy industry. Major industrial plants are ships, automobiles, electronics and optical devices, locomotives, airplanes, chemicals and all kinds of machinery manufacturing plants. 26% of the workforce is employed in the industrial sector. Japanese industrial establishments are located on a belt extending from the eastern Kanto plain to Kiyusiyu. There are three industrial centers in this region. These are the Keihin region, the Hanshin region and the Chukyo region. The Keihin region includes the cities of Tokyo, Yokohama and Kawasaki. The Hanshin region includes the cities of Osaka, Hyogo and Kyoto. The Chukyo region is surrounded by the dark surroundings with the city of Nagoyo. The industrial centers of Japan, which developed after the war, were founded on the land gained from the sea.

Trading: Exports large amount of industrial products from Japan. The most important product of Japan, which realizes most of the trade by sea, produces machines with a ratio of 30%. This is followed by iron and steel products, cotton products, transportation vehicles, ships, optical devices, raw silk, glass, porcelain, toys, electronic vehicles and fish products.

Imported oil comes from the beginning of the products. This is followed by iron ore, wheat. They also import raw cotton, wool, rubber, raw materials and timber.

Trade with almost all countries of the world. The most traded is USA and Canada, followed by Asian countries.

Transportation: The total length of roads in Japan is 1,098,900 kilometers. Only 65% ??of these roads are asphalt. The length of the railways is around 26,000 km. Railway transportation plays a more important role in Japan than land transportation. Speed ??and underground trains are famous.

Sea transportation is developed because it is an island state. There are many ports all around the world. Most of the trade is provided by the sea trade fleet.

Air transportation: provided by Japan Airlines. The most important airports in Tokyo and Osaka are international airports. There are 71 airports with scheduled flights.




The history of Qatar is very new. The people of the gulf, which is a Sami race, accepted Islam as the people of the Arab Peninsula and surrounding regions during the years when Islam spread. Qatar, for many years under the command of the region’s tribal lords was ruled.

After the domination of the Arabian Peninsula by the Ottomans, sometimes the Iranian Safavids, sometimes the Ottomans and sometimes the Qarsar under the sovereignty. After settling the British into India, Qatar made a treaty with Qatar’s Shaykh and became a free country in the UK’s internal affairs for Qatar foreign affairs. In 1971, he joined the federation with the other sheikhs after the withdrawal of the British from the Persian Gulf and in 1972, he left the federation and declared his independence. The country is still governed by the sheikhs.

Physical Structure

Deserts occupy the south of the country. On the northern side are pastures. The highest point is the limestone hills located on the west coast. The height of these mounds is 76 m. Its shores include low noses, narrow gulfs, salt beds and coral rocks. There are no lakes and rivers within the borders of the country. Water is needed from the sea through wells and treatment plants.

Natural Resources

As the desert climate prevails in the country, the vegetation is scarce. The most important plant communities are grasslands and desert bushes. The country’s most important source of resources is oil. There are also salt beds called sabkha. Plenty of pearls are extracted from the coast.


Very hot and dry climate prevails in Qatar. It is seen that the temperature is up to 49 ° C in summer. In the winter, the weather is a little chilly thanks to rainfall, but it is not cold.

Population and Social Life

In the country with a population of 520,000, a large majority of the population live in Duha and its vicinity. 73% of the population are Arabs, 20% are Iranians and 7% are Pakistanis.

Almost all of the nation’s people are Muslim and the majority of them are spoken in Arabic. In Qatar, primary education is free of charge. Literacy rate is 74.7%. The vast majority of adults are illiterate. Nearly 2000 Catalan students are enrolled in universities in foreign countries.

Political Life

Qatar is the absolute ruler of the Sheikh administration. Today’s sheikh is Khalifa bin Ahmet es-Sani.


The country’s most important source is oil. Oil saved Qatar from poverty and made prosperity a country.

Agriculture: In the past, agriculture could not be done due to the lack of irrigation in Qatar. But today, modern methods of vegetable production is made or even exported.

Although the majority of the farms belong to the Qatarians, they are operated by the Palestinians. Agricultural spraying, seeding, planting of windbreaker trees, soil expulsion are made free of charge by the Ministry of Agriculture.

Industry: The presence of oil has increased the level of life in the country and has also led to the development of the fertilizer and cement industry. Construction industry is very developed. There are also petroleum operation facilities and refineries.

Trade: It sells the most oil and petroleum products to the outside. 95% of the exports are crude oil, the rest of the rest of the natural gas. It also sells ammonia and vegetables. On the other hand, Qatar has many consumables, including foodstuffs, and it is the most popular products for motor vehicles and private cars. Usually trading with Japan, England, Holland, USA, France.

Transportation: There are 2000 km of highway in the country. Railways were not developed. Air transportation is provided by Gulf-Air, the common airline of the Gulf countries. Doha Airport is the most important airport.

Sea transportation is provided by the ports of Um Said and Doha.


South Korea


History of Korea It dates back to 3000. After the hands of China, Buddhism and the Chinese remained under the influence. Later, from the 7th century until the 20th century, he lived independently under the rule of various dynasties. In 1910, the Japanese invaded Korea and turned it into a colony. This situation lasted until 1945. After the defeat of Japan in the Second World War, South Korea was occupied by the US and North Korea by Russia. Thus, the communist regime in the north and the democratic regime in the south were established.

On June 25, 1950, North Korean troops, under the command of Russian officers, attacked and invaded South Korea to assert communism. Upon this, the UN decided to save South Korea. UN troops were sent to the area. This army of Turkey, joined a brigade. Mehmetçik showed great success for the removal of the occupying communist units from South Korea. The victory of Mehmetci was spread all over the world. As a result of the negotiations on July 27, 1953 a truce was signed. 38. Parallel South Korea was accepted as a border between North Korea. After the war, the democratic regime based on the presidential system was passed. The unification with North Korea is on the agenda, and it is hoped that it will soon become a single state.

Physical Structure

South and west coast of South Korea is very indented and protruding. It is surrounded by many peninsulas and small islands. In these parts, Pusan ??and Inchon are the most important ports. Although the eastern part is mountainous, the western part is covered with large areas, plains and hills. There are no natural ports in the eastern part. It is usually mountainous. But the mountains are not high. The highest mountain is Chiri San Mountain with 1915 m. Important rivers include the Naktong, Han and Inchon Rivers.


The climate of Korea is influenced by the cold winds blowing through the winter, and the hot and humid monsoon winds blowing from the Pacific in the summer. The surface shapes of the country affect the climate. Monsoon winds also include tropical plants among the vegetation. The average annual precipitation is 1270 mm. In the south, there are frequent typhoons in September. The lowest temperature in the country is 3 ° C and the highest temperature is 24 ° C.

Natural Resources

In the country, which was formerly covered by forests, forests were not lost due to uncontrolled slaughter, fire and disease. But there are scattered pine and bamboo trees.

It’s not rich in metal. But it is one of the leading countries in tungsten production. In addition, coal, iron, fluorine, graphite, gold, copper and lead are removed in small amounts.

Population and Social Life

The Korean population was 15 million in 1945, but today it has exceeded 43 million because of immigrants from North Korea. 32% of the people live in cities. The biggest city, the capital, is Seoul. Although Korea is a bridge between China and Japan, it has developed a unique culture. Koreans living in villages, dress and live like centuries ago. The inhabitants of the cities are under the influence of the western world.

Majority of the people believe in Confucianism and Buddhism. There are up to 10% Christian. The Islam, which was introduced by the Korean Turkish brigade, is spreading day by day. The official language used by the people and the Korca.

Training: Education is compulsory and free of charge between the ages of 6-12. The literacy rate in the country is 92%. In South Korea, there are 82 universities with 72 universities.

Political Life

The 1972 Constitution gave the President the mandate elected by the National Conference for 6 years. The National Assembly has 276 members. Members of the Assembly are elected by the people for 4 years. The President has the authority to terminate the assembly.


The basis of the country’s economy is agriculture. Besides, fishing and tungsten mine are important in the industry and economy.

Agriculture: The fertile soil of the Korean Peninsula remained within the borders of South Korea. Rice cultivation takes an important place because it is the main food of the people. Rice production is over 7 million tons. Other than rice, wheat, barley, potato, soybean, tobacco and sugarcane are grown in the country.

Fisheries: One of the country’s major sources of income is fishing. Since the three sides of the country are surrounded by sea and open sea fishing, fish are hunted to be exported.

Industry: After the peninsula is divided into two, South Korea has rapidly developed its industry with the loans it has obtained from outside and has been able to export various industrial products. Weaving, paper, plywood, electrical and electronic tools are advanced. We also have plastic materials, paint, fertilizer, cement, glass factories and car factories. The engine industry was also established.

Trade: South Korea exports woven, plywood, electronic instruments, land vehicles, electrical appliances, tungsten, fish and fish products to the outside. Most of the countries selling clothing. From the outside, it takes machinery and grain. South Korea is one of the countries that trade in the United States, Japan and Hong Kong. Annual export amount is around $ 20 billion




B.C. Iran was known since 3000 years. It is known that the oldest known of the Elamis in the BC BC. The empire they established in 1100-600. The empire, which was founded by the Medes instead of the Elamlins, was founded by the Persian King. He destroyed it in 550 and took it under his domination, including a large part of Anatolia.

Alexander the Greeks under the command of BC In 330, they captured all the land of Iran. After that, the sovereignty of the Parthians and Sassanids continued in the Iranian territory.

The collapse of the Sassanids was caused by the Islamic armies taking over Iran. During the reign of Hazrat Umar, many flights were organized on Iran. The Islamic armies that entered into the flock of Iran, conquered Azerbaijan, Tabaristan, Djurcan, Rey, Kumis, Karvin, Zanjan, Hemedan, Isfahan and Khurasan. After the death of Hazrat Umar, some confusion occurred in Iran. On this, Hazrat-i Osman sent troops to suppress the rebellions and punished his ringleaders. Thus, the dominance of Islam was ensured in Iran.

At the beginning of the Hijri al-Umiid, the descendants of Safiyyuddin Erdebili, a Persian, established a Sunni sect in Iran. In his name, this order was given the name Safaviye. The Ottoman sultans have given many gifts to those members of the sect who served Islam. However, starting from Hodja Ali, the hostility of Eshab-i kiram started to spread among the members of this road. Then Sheikh Ibrahim, who became the head of the sect, embraced extreme Shiite views. After that, she was succeeded by Shaikh Haydar. After Sheikh Heydar’s death, his son, Shah Ismail, was crowned. Shah Ismail, destroyed the State of Akkoyunlular custody, Iran established the Safavid Dynasty. At that time Shiism was the official religion of the state. In this period, the most important issues of the dynasty was to fight the Ottomans. In 1514, the Ottoman Sultan Yavuz Sultan Selim in Shahdiran, Shah Ismail was severely defeated and Tabrizi conquered (See ÇaldiranMuharebesi). After the death of Shah Ismail the throne passed to the Ottomans in the hands of the Ottomans.

The collapse of the Safavid Dynasty. The first sign of the fall was the rebellion of the Afghan Mir Veys in Kandehar in 1709. After that, Afghans frequently organized military campaigns on Iran. But they never had Iran completely. In 1729 the Safavids seized re-management. But this time, the Russian Tsar Petro Petro has been eyeing Iran to open the necessary trade routes. The Ottomans organized an expedition against Iran in order to prevent Iran from reaching the Russians. There was a danger of a war between the Ottomans and the Russians, but the two states did not agree as they thought, and they shared Iran among them. This deal didn’t last long. Tahmasb was trying to gather an army in northeastern Iran. Tsar Petro announced that he would welcome the throne to pass to the Safavid Dynasty. But it was not enough for the Safavid Dynasty to seize the throne. With Nadir Shah, the sovereignty of the Afshar line begins on Iran. But this did not last long. After the murder of Nadir Shah, a power vacuum emerged and three different opponents emerged for the throne. These are: Zendler, Afghans and Kajas. Zendlerin management of them for a short period of time to 40 years was not. After that, the country’s administration remained in the hands of the Qajars until 1925.

The period between 1925-1979 was the period when the Pahlavi dynasty was under the throne of Iran. During the time of the caliphate of the Pahlavi family, the most depressing period was the Second World War. After 1938, the influence of the German influence in Iran began to make itself felt, as a result of the presence of many Nazi-Germany technicians in Iran, especially the United States, allied states were anxious. The tension began in 1952, when Iran’s diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom advanced until the cut. The Iranian prime minister, Mossadeq, made great concessions to the Iranian Communist Party, Tudeh, and tried to use them as a lever against the West, causing unrest in the country. Thereupon the Shah, Musaddish azu dismissal of the General Zahid replaced the appointed.
In 1963, the Shah altında White Revolution altında underwent major economic and social reforms in the country. The increasing oil revenues and the large expenditures made especially for the defense of the country began to bring Iran among the countries that have a strong influence in the Middle East. The Iranian Shiite leader Khomeini, who was in exile in France at this time, gathered around the majority Shia, taking advantage of the dominance of the Shiite faith in the country. As a result of many internal and external struggles, Khomeini ruled Iran. The Shah family left Iran and began to rule with the Shia faith in the country. In 1979, the Iranian Islamic Republic of Iran, the country that took the name of the Shia, the Iranian, accused of anti-state by stealing unquestioned lead.

Iran, under Khomeini administration, started war with Iraq on 22 September 1980 and hundreds of thousands of Iranians died in this war. On 20 August 1988, the ceasefire was stopped. Ayatollah Khomeini’s death in 1989, when he was replaced by President Ali Hameney in August of the same year, and Hamedey the President of parliament, Hashemi Rafsanjani, as President. Upon the invasion of Kuwait by Saddam Hussein, he declared that Iran fully accepts the conditions of peace. Thus, the war that started in 1975 resulted in a peace agreement in 1990 and the diplomatic relationship between the two countries was re-established.

Physical Structure

A large part of Iran consists of high plains and large deserts. The country’s high plains are limited to the Elbrus Mountains in the north and the Zagros Mountains to the southwest. The center of this plain is covered by two large desert. Deşt-i Kebir (Salt desert) and De?-i Lut (sand desert) are a desert. During the rainy seasons, the floods come from the mountains and leave them to Dest-i Kebir.

A large part of Iranian territory is higher than 1000 m above sea level. There are North Iranian mountain ranges in the north that exceed 3000 m. In this part of Iran, Elbrus Mountains, which separates the Caspian Sea from the plateaus in the inner region of Iran, reaches to a height of 4000 m. This mountainous area towards the east descends and shrinks. To the west of the Elbrus Mountain range lies the mountainous region of Azerbaijan, where the Rezaiye Lake and its basin are located. The Tabriz Plain is located just east of Rezaiye Lake. The deepest place of Rezaiye Lake is 14 m and its surface area is 5000 km2. The mountains surrounding the south of Iran meet under the name of South Iranian Mountains. There are also many volcanic mountains in Iran. The Great Hatchet is one of the widest deserts of the earth’s flat. Kuzistan Plain is an extension of Mesopotamia. Iran is a country without large rivers. Karun, Akçay and Karaçay are the most important streams.


In terms of climate, Iran is a country with very different regions. The parts facing the Caspian Sea are very moist and always rainy. All of the Iranian lands outside this region are in the subtropical arid zone.

The north-facing slopes of the Elbrus Mountains, which turn the northern sides of the Caspian Sea, are covered with rich forests, with an average rainfall of 1000-1500 mm per year. The narrow coastal plains are very humid. In the south, the climate is mild, but there is often a significant warmth. Isfahan receives a rainfall of 120 mm per year. Rains generally fall at the end of winter and early summer. The inner plains, separated by high mountains from the sea, are not affected by the low air pressure seen in the Mediterranean during the summer. Here, the climate is very hot in summers and the winters are very cold.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: the mountainous areas of Iran are covered with forests. In the coastal region of the Caspian Sea, a bushy forest cover resembles a Black Sea plant community. In these sections and highlands, high steppes take a large place. The desert areas of the desert steppes with salt marshes in the troughs of the inner regions extends. Various cultural crops are cultivated in fertile soils that can be irrigated and watered. In arid regions, they look like oasis.

There are few tigers, leopards, wolves, bears and foxes in Iranian forests today. The gazelle inhabits the empty lands around the deserts. Wild goats and various hunting birds are found in mountainous regions.

Mines: Iran is rich in minerals. In the northern and western regions, there are coal deposits between Tehran-Semnan north, Yezd and Keran, Damgan gold and Anarakranta nickel deposits. There are also bauxite, lead, antimony, cobalt, silver, tin, copper, sulfur and salt mines. Horasan’s bluish greenish jewels called Turhis are famous.

The biggest wealth of Iran is oil deposits. Iran provides 6% of the world’s oil.

Population and Social Life

The population of Iran is 59.570.000 and it falls to 20 km2. 20% of Iranian population lives in cities. The majority of the people are Persian. 60% of the people are Persian, 20% are Turks, 10% are Arabs, 8% are others and 2% are Kurds. There are around 10 million Turks in Iran. Most of the people are Shiites. The majority of the rest is Sunni and the dominance is in the hands of Shiites. The most common language in Iran is Persian. But more than half of the population uses various languages ??and dialects such as Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Beluchi and Gilaki. Although education is compulsory for boys and girls, this is not possible in remote villages. There are 10 universities in the country. The main cities are Tehran, Tabriz, Isfahan, Abadan and Kum.

Political Life

At the beginning of 1979 in Iran, Khomeini movement was terminated and an Islamic Republic was established. The administration in Iran, which is dominated by Shiites in the administration; The Assembly is led by a religious leader who is deemed to be the representative of the twelve Imams, the ministers, the prime minister and the president, and the custodian. With the constitutional amendment in 1989, the position of the president was strengthened.


Iran is a country of agriculture and livestock. Political developments have led to a decline in the economy, leading to a decline in national income.

Agriculture: Most of the population is engaged in agriculture. One-seventh of Iran is arable and suitable for agriculture. Most of the agricultural products are wheat and barley. Besides fruits and vegetables, rice, lentil, chickpea, sugar beet, onion, cotton, melon, watermelon, mulberry and tobacco are grown. In a narrow coastal strip on the north, agriculture can be done without the need for irrigation, and the palm is grown in the south through irrigation channels. Irrigation is a significant problem in the south and southeast of the country. In many regions, agriculture is based on old methods. Therefore, the desired result can not be obtained in agriculture.

Livestock: Livestock holds an important place in Iranian economy. Most sheep are fed. The wool of the sheep fed is sought after and very valuable. Generally, livestock is carried out in high grassland and mountains of mountains. Most sheep are fed after sheep. Fishing is done in the Caspian Sea. Here, sturgeon and caviar are obtained.

Industry: Modern industry has little development in Iran. Despite the availability of small beds, coal, iron ore, lead, nickel and copper are extracted. In addition to the carpet weaving, weaving and leather processing, Iran has also started to develop various industries. Weaving, cement, sugar factories, foundry and chemical industries are some of these. Iran’s largest source of wealth and energy is oil. Petroleum processing plants and refineries are the major industrial plants of Iran.

Oil in Iran was discovered by foreigners, processed by them, nationalized in 1951. Oil from various centers is brought to the Abadan oil refinery, one of the largest oil refineries in the world.

Trade: Iran is a country that exports more than imports. Oil is the beginning of the products exported. It sells more than 80% of the oil obtained. Other export materials are cotton, carpet, fruit, rice, wool and leather. Imported goods include sugar, machinery, textiles, steel, tea, motor vehicles.

Transportation: There are 12,000 kilometers of road and 4,601 kilometers of rail network in Iran.

The main ports of Abadan, Hürremşah, are located in the Gulf of Basra. In the Caspian Sea, Benderşah and Bender Pehlevi are also important ports. There are international airports in Tehran and Abadan.


Republic of China


The reviews of the old time frames give new data about China. The main line administering the nation is known as the Hya and Shanghai lines. The main known data about the Hya line is the names of the rulers. Because of research led in the Shanghai line, around BC. It is realized that they ruled the Chinese fields somewhere in the range of 1450 and 1050. B.C. Between the years 1050-220, with different applications, he drove the Çov family. The Chouk line, which was devastated by the annihilation of the Shanghai tradition Between the long stretches of 1050-771 they framed a medieval organization. In the nation, primitive states started to form into free states. This made the intensity of the ruler decrease and the war between the medieval states. The East and the Mongols from the West vanquished an expansive piece of the nation. A huge piece of the land that fell under the control of the Western countries reclaimed the Chinese bey Tsin. Subsequently, the state wound up one of the vital primitive states.

B.C. 770-472 The exchange of the primitive rulers among themselves is a time of common war. Because of these fights, there were seven beys who took the lord’s wonder and left the Chahovah. B.C. 472-221 BC toward the finish of common war. In 453 Tsin devlets primitive state was partitioned into three states. B.C. 221-206 Tsiniyetin Sülalesi between them dealt with the main residence with absolutism. The institutionalization of wheel axles and the presentation of a few units of estimation are critical occasions of this stage in Chinese history. With the end goal to be shielded from assaults from the North (the Hun assaults), the primary type of the Chinese Saba was made of stoneware. An uprising in the eastern China district prompted delayed wars, and despite the fact that these wars in the end assumed control over the Han line, the organization changed sooner or later. B.C. In 206, Lui Ki, a little officer, framed the Han Dynasty. A.D. The time of common wars started in the year 168 on a rebellion that occurred up to 220 years. An incredible famous uprising was smothered. Because of this common war, the nation was separated into three, Vey (220-264) in the north, Vu (229-280) in the southeast, and southwestern Empires (221-263) were established. In the time of expanding movement, the Tsin line (265-316) prompted the unification of China, which conveyed harmony and solidness to the nation. Beforehand wage countries used to be so amazing in these wars (in the skirmishes of the nobles) that Hyung-nular (Huns) 303 set up another state (Han). This administration has caught the Chinese Emperor twice and has prevailing with regards to toppling all North China since 317. At that point the Tsin Nile plummeted north, where he established the East Tsin Family (317-419).

In South China, different states have been built up until 580. The World of Water (581-618) could join China. In this fleeting line, China caught northern and southern Vietnam and the north of Tibet. It made China feel its impact again in Central Asia. In this circuit channels were opened to encourage exchange relations in the North and Central China Plain. Notwithstanding, the assistance of outsiders to do this work was the finish of the Judea. T .ang Family (618-907) came to control. In this line period (664), the land was revamped and saddled. Turkistan left China’s hands over the assaults of Muslim Arabs.

From that point onward, the Turks settled in vital positions in the state organization and assumed a vital job in the incessant advancements. After the fall of the T .ang Dynasty, he was the head of five little dynastic commissions until 960. In this period, states as little states rose in North and South China. In 960, the solidarity of the Chinese Empire was endeavored to be restored amid the Sung Dynasty which was good to go, however it was not fruitful in this. Amid this tradition period, numerous urban areas were set up and black powder was utilized. Engineering, history, verse, painting, porcelain and cultivation achieved an abnormal state. Acquired recorded reports establish proof for the stature of this human progress.

Genghis Khan attacked China between 1206-27 and the Mongols took control of the district on the north side of the Yellow River in 1214. In 1271 Kublai Khan pronounced his realm. Subsequently, they set up the Yüan Dynasty (1260-1368) and the capital Yenching (Beijing). Together with the Mongols, the Yüan Dynasty vanquished and vanquished all of China. From that point onward, the Mongols went under the impact of Chinese culture and embraced Chinese traditions and conventions in their religion, traditions and customs.

Chu Yüan Chang set up the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) rather than the Yüan Dynasty. At the season of this administration, the Mongols were headed toward the northern side of Lake Baikal and the realm had its old quality. In this period, Europeans achieved China. In the sixteenth century, the Portuguese and the Spanish came here in the seventeenth century.

At the season of the Chyaing Dynasty (1644-1912), which came into power after the Ming Dynasty, the European dealers brought China’s essential assets into the West for quite a long time and profited by it.

China stayed shut toward the west for a long time. China’s opening toward the west started amidst the nineteenth century. In these years, business, political relations with Portugal, Britain, France, USA started. The British, Indian cotton and opium were supplanted by tea and silk. Chinese preeminent specialists attempted to keep this exchange. They took choices that precluded the import of opium. There were conflicts with the British and wars started. In any case, these wars finished with the triumph of the British (1842). Toward the finish of the understanding, the British had more extensive rights. Therefore, five Chinese ports opened to the British and Hong Kong Island was left to the British. These wars were called Bu Afyon War “. Afterward, similar rights were allowed to the USA and France.

After some time the usage of understandings has disturbed. The Chinese needed to oust the nonnatives from their nation. In any case, they didn’t plan to give back the concessions they acquired, however observed them to be less. In this manner, in the second 50% of the nineteenth century there were uprisings in the nation. Be that as it may, these uproars were stifled by outside powers. In 1858, the British and French won new rights. Sooner or later, similar interests were perceived by the United States and Russia. After these occasions, a time of serenity started in China.

Chinese-Japanese Wars: The main war started in 1894 when China needed to build up predominance over Korea. The two nations sent troops to Korea to smother the uprising in Korea. The uprising was smothered. In any case, at that point the two nations battled one another. Toward the finish of these wars, China endured incredible misfortunes. The war finished in 1895, and China perceived the autonomy of Korea, and furthermore needed to give Formoza Island to Japan.

Yuan Shi-Kafay, who came to control after 1911, began to set up a monarchical organization yet kicked the bucket in 1916 without being fruitful. In the mean time in 1917 emblematically entered the First World War, yet numerous urban communities meanwhile were involved by Shanghai, Japan.

In 1925, Çiank Kayşek, the pioneer of the patriots, assumed control. He reclaimed numerous spots by battling with his armed forces against the Japanese. In the interim Shanghai was recovered.

In 1920, the socialist party was established and started to accumulate supporters. This gathering has caused a considerable measure of perplexity in the nation. Chiank-Kay-Shek attempted to battle the Japanese from one perspective and on the other. In 1927, the socialist party of Mao Ch-Tung, Zhou Enlai and Zhu Di kom and the socialist party, which turned into the leader of the socialists, wound up more grounded and started to battle against the powers of government. At the point when the Second World War was finished, the socialists and the patriots stayed alone. The socialist units under Mao Ch-Tung commanded the nation. He was by all accounts helping the American men. The negotiators sent to China by the United States have dependably neutralized the patriots, making them fall under the control of the Communists.

At the point when the organization was totally in the hands of the Communists, the Nationalist Chinese government needed to withdraw to Formoza (Tay-Van) Island. In this manner China was separated into two: the People’s Republic of China and the Nationalist Republic of China.

On October 1, 1949, the People’s Republic of China was set up under the chairmanship of Mao Ch-Tung. Therefore, China’s whole domain in the Asian mainland was caught by the People’s Republic of China. The Nationalist Republic of China additionally resigned to Formosa Island and set up an administration there. Mao passed on in 1976. After Mao’s passing, Maoism was straightforwardly censured. Chinese officials made financial participation with the US and Japan. Marshal Ye Cienying clarified Mao’s missteps. The old strong state was lifted and started to diminish in financial and political terms. Chinese entryways opened to remote capital. As of late, democratization developments have been smothered bloodily.

Physical Structure

China, which has a surface zone of ​​9.572.900 km2, is separated into two sections as east and west. West of the nation; southwest and northwest; Its outskirts with southwestern India and Bagnaintia shape the Himalayan mountain extend with the most astounding crest on the planet. The Tibet Plateau, which has a zone of ​​1 million km2 toward the north of the Himalayas and a normal tallness of 3900 m, is encompassed by the mountain scopes of Astin Tagh and Nam Sham. These mountains join the Himalayas in the west of the nation. The north of the Astin Tagh Mountains, which establish the northwestern piece of the nation, is the horticultural bowl of East Turkestan. In the northwestern piece of the nation, there are the Mountains of Tiemşan, the Altai Mountains, which frame the Mongolia fringe, and the wide plain encompassed by Torbagatay and Çungarski Alatau.

The southern piece of the Gobi Desert possesses the north of the nation. There are slopes toward the east of which are very little higher than the west. These slopes stretch out from the upper east toward the southwest and join with the bumpy area. Kıngan is encompassed by Çangpai and Çangvansai mountains.

The northern piece of East China comprises of the fields comprising of the bowls of the Hai Ho, Hvang Ho and Kuai Ho waterways, and the southern part comprises of the good countries ascending along the outskirt of Northern Burma and the Chinese Hindi landmass. These are the most populated fields of the nation and the most crowded one. China has an aggregate outskirt length of 42,500 km and 22,500 kilometers of this fringe length is in the Pacific Ocean. Its shores are for the most part high in Liatoung and Şantung landmasses and low and alluvial fields in different parts.

33% of the domain of the nation is precipitous, one quarter is high, one is valley, one is slopes and twelve percent is ovalık. The streams have diverse qualities in the east and west. The waterways in the western piece of the desert and high levels are for the most part in underground or infertile bowls. Acurids in the eastern parts of the Pacific Ocean is generally poured. The waters flooded by feeble streams in China comprise two-fifths of the surface zone. The most vital streams are found in the Eastern China locales. Sungari-Lia Ho in the Mancuria area in the North East and the Yellow River in the eastern locale (Huanghı), the Blue River in the center (Yang-tse kiang) and the Inci River in the south (Şi-kiang) are the most essential waterways. The waterways in the eastern locale can alter course. Softening snow waters, dissipation and desert conditions are the central point influencing the stream and bearing of these waterways. The Blue River (Yang-tse kiang) has a length of 5552 km and is the fourth longest waterway on the planet.

Uncommon streams in Western China end in groundwater in lake bowls or bone-dry soils. Huang-Ho (4845 km) and Yang-tse kiang, two vast waterways of the nation, are conceived in Tibet. In the north piece of the Mongolia, the Huang-Ho River is the most vital waterway in the nation. There are a couple of little lakes in the western horticultural bowl. Salt lakes in Mongolia, the Tung-Ting, Pu-yang and Tai lakes in the eastern areas are the most imperative lakes. In spite of the fact that it has numerous little lakes (for the most part in the east), there is no other essential lake.


In southern China, rainstorm atmosphere wins, particularly in the northwestern districts where the brutal mainland atmosphere wins. Cool, dry and high weight air on Central Asia in winter makes a breeze from the land the oceans. In the mid year this circumstance happens despite what might be expected. They are wet as the breezes blowing from the ocean to the land. The eastern areas get a lot of precipitation, particularly in the mid year because of the rainstorm. The western parts are to a great degree poor as far as precipitation. The normal yearly precipitation is around 50 mm in the northwest and finds a high figure of 3000 mm in the southeast. The rain falls among May and October, representing about 80% of the yearly sum. July and August in the northern areas are blustery seasons.

In the south, there are temperatures that are reasonable for the atmosphere in the north against tropical atmosphere temperatures. In the late spring, the north and south locales have nearly a similar temperature, while in winter the temperature contrast ranges to 35 ° C. The northern area has a chilly winter season because of the brutal atmosphere of the winter, while a calm tropical atmosphere wins in the south. Long and sweltering summers in the southeast, particularly Tibet and Tsinghai levels in the long and hard winters win. Rather than summers here is short and sweltering passes.

Populace and Social Life

China is the most crowded nation on the planet as far as populace. The vast majority of the populace is situated in beach front regions, in the delta and stream valleys, in the self-sufficient grounds in the focal level of Szechwan and in arable land in the Great Valley of North China. There are numerous expansive downtown areas with more than two million occupants in these districts. In spite of the fact that the legislature has taken estimates identified with populace control, the yearly populace development is more than 15 million. The idea of the nation blocks the equivalent conveyance of the populace all through the nation. The normal populace thickness is 109. Yet, this is the normal thickness, the thickness declines toward the west and tumbles to short of what one square kilometer. China’s most thickly populated locale as far as populace thickness is the north-east area where extensive urban areas are stacked. In spite of the fact that this area comprises 40% of the Chinese region, it contains 90% of the populace. The populace thickness here is 450 individuals for every square kilometer. Whatever is left of the populace live in 60% of the land. East Turkestan and Tibet are classified “New Land” (Colonial) toward the start of these districts. Numerous Chinese individuals from the east were put in these locales after the Communist organization assumed control. Particularly in urban areas which are exceptionally swarmed, relocations are made to country territories because of absence of job. Socialist organization since 1960, anti-conception medication, family arranging, provincial territories, and so forth consolation. In spite of the fact that the measures are taken, the populace is quickly expanding and the populace issue ends up uncertain.

China’s expansive populace development is anything but another issue. In the primary century BC, China’s populace was around 50 million. A.D. It was 100 million of every 1200. The populace tumbling to 65 million of every 1368, 150 million of every 1600, up to 430 million of every 1800. Today it is more than 1 billion. It speaks to a fourth of the total populace. There are in excess of 10 million relational unions for each year in the nation. There are 56 ethnic gatherings in China with such a substantial populace. Of these ethnic gatherings, 94% are Hanis. The Hanans are the Chinese. Han Kağan has nothing to do with Turkish. B.C. It takes its name from the Hun Dynasty between the years 202-220. The other 55 ethnic gatherings additionally comprise minorities. The fundamental ones are:

Turks: They involve the East Turkestan, where the Chinese possessed and finished the Turkish state. Most of the Uighur Turks, Kazakh, Uzbek and Kyrgyz Turks are here. Its populace is around 19-20 million. In 1867 this district was positively the settlement of China. Islamic religious and Turkish customs were prohibited, mosques and madrasas were shut. (See Turkestan)

The principle minorities that pursue the Turks are the Suleans, the Hueis, the Tibetans and the Mongols. They live in the southern piece of Central China, in the Kuang-si Suang area.

Tibetans: They have a populace of around 4 million and live in high Tibetan levels.

Huei: They live in Ning-hsia-huei. There are around 5 million occupants.

Mongols: They live in Inner Mongolia and have around two million occupants.

In China, different vernaculars of the Sinai-Tibetan dialect family are talked. Notwithstanding, the official dialect is the Mandarin lingo talked by North China. As indicated by districts, tongues change and mana is broken with various elocutions. Be that as it may, the composed dialect utilized is comprehended by everybody. There are in excess of 4 thousand letters in Chinese in light of the fact that the letters show syllable. As of late, this number is being attempted to be diminished. Minorities utilize their very own dialect among themselves. China has no official religion. Be that as it may, the general population have a place with Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, Islam and few Christian religions.

The primary nourishments of the general population are wheat in the north, rice in the south and fish with different vegetables. As of not long ago, the general population kept up the conventional family arrange. Families live with numerous relatives. The Communist organization transforms them into cooperatives. Toward the start of open amusement, kite flying, national processions and fire diversions with manikin winged serpents and wrestling are the main. Kung-fu sport, which spread all through the world as of late, has likewise risen up out of here. China as of late took an interest in global games rivalries. Correspondence is totally under the control of the socialist organization.

In antiquated occasions, China made a support of numerous vital advancements. Among these, porcelain, paper making, press throwing, square printing, black powder and attractive apparatuses can be referenced. Today, China has turned into the third superpower. It is situated in the non-coalition nations.

Instruction is sorted out by the socialist organization as per the reason for the routine. In contrast to other socialist nations, business colleges were additionally settled. Imperative urban communities are: Beijing, (city), Shanghai, Tientsin, Canton, Shenyan, Wu-han, Urumqi.

Political Life

On 20 September 1954 a socialist organization was built up. The legislature is ruled by the Communist Party, the nation’s solitary political gathering. Living and overseeing in the nation is in the hands of the National People’s Congress, which meets once per year with 1227 individuals. Voter age is 18 years. The Standing Commission or the State Assembly, which is the official panel of the National People’s Congress, meets one day, comprises of a president chosen by the individuals from the Congress, 13 delegates, a secretary general and 65 appointees. The official power has a place with the administration, comprising of 12 heads of priests, 32 pastors or clergymen at the dimension of pastors and the general secretary. The head of express, a part of the official, is chosen by the congress for a long time. Authoritatively, it is isolated into 28 regions, of which 5 are state states, 21 are state states and 2 are regions.


Farming: It is a nation that is financially immature, poor and in this way has a low welfare level. The extraordinary modifier for China is utilized on account of the plenitude of its populace and region. In the nation which depends on farming, the land, agrarian vehicles, industrial facilities and ventures have a place with the state. Despite the fact that it is one of the main nations on the planet regarding the measure of sustenance created in developed land, which is moderately not exactly the nation’s surface zone, it can’t address its own issues. Rice, corn, grain, millet, soybeans, sesame, nut, walnut, sugarcane and tobacco are the major rural items. Cotton, cannabis are among the most critical horticultural items in the nation where a wide range of organic products are developed.

Ranger service: Forest items are very high and are one of the main nations on the planet. In spite of the fact that there is a considerable measure of generation to the world states, it isn’t sufficient to address its own issues. Consequently, bamboo trees are utilized rather than timber in the towns.

Domesticated animals: It is more typical in steppe areas in the north and northwest. Little and cows, ponies, camels, jackasses are among the most developed creatures. The employment of the general population in East Turkestan, Shing-Hay and Inner Mongolia is domesticated animals.

There are in excess of 1500 fish species in the Chinese oceans. A normal of 8.5 million tons of fish for each year is the most essential protein wellspring of the nation.

Numerous non-rich mineral assets can’t be worked adequately in view of the innovation that is exceptionally iptid. The oil it produces is additionally traded as it addresses the nation’s issue. Despite the fact that the welfare of the general population is to a great degree low, the ventures are made toward the creation of atomic bombs, shades, PCs, military vehicles and gear. Mechanical interests toward this path for the most part utilize outside guide. Craftsmanship is a world acclaimed. Particularly silk, porcelain, cutting and comparable handiworks are a long ways ahead.

In exchange, imports could really compare to trades. Cotton, tea, silk, porcelain is the main item. Toward the start of the merchandise imported are apparatus and mechanical items and wheat and different foodstuffs.

Transportation: In China, extraordinary significance has been joined to street and rail transportation. 83% of the 982,243 km expressway is black-top. The length of the railroads, together with nearby lines associated with little creation units, is 64,960 km. Transportation is conceivable in a large portion of the streams. The busiest streams are Yongtzo, X’i Huai and Huang waterways. China, which has a long ocean drift, has around 20 untamed ocean ports. In China, which has an unpleasant territory, the most advantageous transportation is the aviation route. There are 80 air terminals around the nation.