Egypt

Historical

Egypt is one of the richest countries in the world. Egypt has been the cradle of many civilizations throughout history. According to the results from the archaeological excavations, the first known date of BC. It starts with the Kingdoms of Lower and Upper Egypt, founded in 5000 BC. The oldest of them is the Pharaoh period.

The pyramids, which remain as secrets to date and the first among the seven wonders of the world, were built in their time. The secrets such as the transportation of giant stone blocks which are used in the construction of the pyramids and some of them can reach up to 15 tons, and that their calculations are appropriate for the number of Pir pi ulaşabil and the most remote places are not solved. In addition, the sphinxes, which are a separate enigma of their formations and which take various animal shapes with the effect of the winds, are attracting their astonishment. This is followed by the Menes Dynasty and the Persian domination. Dara, the last of the Persians, the Kyaniyan king; When he was defeated in Erbil, Egypt passed into Alexander the son of Macedonian King Philip. He set up Alexandria. His morals are broken with his victories. In the end, he died of anger and misery. After that, Egypt remained under Roman and Byzantine rule until 640.

At that time, Hazret-i Ömer sent an army from the Eshab-i rent to the conquest of Egypt under the command of Amr ibn as. Egypt was conquered and the garrison of El-Fustat (Old Cairo) was founded. All the people of Egypt were honored by these dates.

In the time of the Caliph al-Muawiyah, Arabic became the language of the people. Egypt, which was brought together with religion and language, experienced a golden revolution in the period of Abbasids in terms of prosperity and peace. After the Abbasids until 1171 Fatimid remained in the hands. At that time, Saladin was conquered by Ayyubi. After the Ayyubids, Egypt was ruled by the Mamluk Sultans of Turkish origin until the 16th century. Innovations were made in the administrative, military, economic and many other fields in the time of the Mamluks. Egyptian traders have taken over the Chinese-European trade, taking advantage of the country’s strategic and economic position.

At the same time, the Ottoman Empire was experiencing the rise period. Sultan Yavuz Sultan Selim Han, 1516’da Egypt Expedition. He first defeated the Mamluks in the Mercidabık plain. He spent the desert of Sinai 13 days without any casualties. Then he defeated the Mamelukes in Ridaniye and added Egypt to the Ottoman lands. Thus, the Ottoman Empire had land on three major continents and served to spread and strengthen Islam here.

In 1798, the French Emperor Napoleon Bonoparte invaded Egypt in order to close the path of India to India. However, he was defeated by Cezzar Ahmed Pasha in Akka Castle. The French then retreated. Meanwhile, Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha was sent to Egypt for help. The French were defeated and withdrew in 1801. Mehmed Ali Pasha stayed in Egypt and became governor. He brought technical equipment and specialist personnel from Western countries. He opened many madrasahs and schools and became the most powerful leader of Egypt. He sent the Egyptian navy for help in the Ottoman-Greek War of 1827. It also opened channels for the development of agriculture and enriched the Egyptian economy. Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha was a good man of his religion. After that, Egypt broke down. He was succeeded by Ibrahim Pasha, his eldest son and governor of Jeddah. İbrahim Pasha, by order of Sultan Mahmud Khan, waged war with the Wahhabis and took the cities of Derıniyye. Then he suppressed the Mora Rebellion. In the meantime, Sultan Mahmud II rebelled against Khan and came to Kütahya. Syria, Adana and Egypt were given to him. He received the title of “Khedive” (Khedive), who was an independent governor. The second time he rebelled against Britain and Syria was again in the Ottomans. After his death in 1848, the first Abbas, then in 1854, Saeed Pasha, son of Ibrahim Pasha was the Khedive. Said Pasha built the Suez Canal and Port Said. After his death, his brother İsmail Pasha became the Khedive. When this was dismissed in 1879, he was succeeded by his son Tevfik Pasha. The British were involved in the Egyptian administration at the time.

In these years, the members of the Cairo Masonic Lodge, of which Cemaleddin-i Efgani was headed, were operating in cooperation with the British. Introduced as a man of religion, Abduh was among them. Egypt, which was weakened economically and militarily, was thus occupied by the British in 1882.

The British, along with the famous spy captain Lavrens, began to divide the locals into Egypt, Jordan, Iraq and Saudi Arabia. The uncoordinated and indecisive policies of the Unionists failed to prevent these developments and caused these countries to gradually leave the Ottoman Empire. Thus, after Egyptian Tevfik Pasha, Abbas Hilmi Pasha, Hüseyin Kamil Pasha and Ahmed Fuad Pashas took the control. Fuad Pasha left the Ottomans and took the name of Melik. Upon his death in 1936, his son Faruk became a melike. During the Second World War, German and Italian troops attacked Egypt. Egypt did not participate in the war until 1945. At that time, he declared war on Japan and Germany. In the same year, he gained independence and became a member of the UN.

Internal rebellions, foreign debts, channel problems and various warfare brought heavy burdens to Egypt. That is why the military revolution in 1952 and Melik Faruk was taken abroad. The following year the republic was declared and the general Necib became the President. In 1956, Sudan left Egypt. The military revolution was made by young officers. Cemal Abduh Nasır was among the most powerful in the army. Two years later, when Nebib wanted to put an end to the military administration, Nasser, who already had different ideas, arrested Najib and seized Egypt.

Nasır brought socialism to Egypt with his policy. He broke Egypt from the western world and dropped it into the arms of Russia. Russian military and technical support opened its doors. About 60 thousand Muslims were brought to the dungeons for various reasons. Nationalized many organizations. He infiltrated his toxic ideas into other Arab countries. Between 1958 and 1961, Syria was in the process of reunification with Syria. Meanwhile, disagreements began with Israel. Egypt-Israel relations became tense. When Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, Britain, France and Israel attacked Egypt, but the US and Russia warned against the attack. UN power was installed in the Israeli border and the Gulf of Aqaba. In 1967, Nasir had these forces back. He shut the canal off Israeli ships. Israel then attacked Egypt and destroyed the Egyptian Air Force. After six days of war, Israel occupied the Sinai region.

When Nasir died in 1970, he was replaced by Anwar Sadat. Egypt attacked Israel in 1973. At the end of the 1975 and 1977 negotiations, the Camp David summit took place. According to this, while Israel withdrew from Sinai, Egypt agreed to open the Channel to Israeli ships.

During Sadat, Egypt was separated from Russian influence and socialism. He made peace with Israel and approached the United States. Unlike Nasser’s policy, Egypt brought it into a liberal and free world system, but its leadership in the Arab world was shaken and its military support weakened. Finally, on 6 January 1981, Sadat was killed as a result of an assassination. Instead of former Air Force Commander Hosni Mubarak became president. In January 1991, Hosni Mubarak, alongside the allied forces in the Gulf operation, has resorted to various remedies to get rid of foreign debts.

Physical Structure

Northeast Africa is located in northeastern Africa and connected to the Sinai Peninsula and Asia. Egypt, which is in the shape of a square in the shape of the sea, south and west of the sea, is located between 23 ° north and 31 ° north latitudes and between 25 ° east and 35 ° east longitude. It has a key position in Asia, Europe and Africa due to its strategic position.

The Nile River, the lifeblood of Africa and Egypt, divides the country into four regions: the Nile River basin, the Sinai Peninsula, the East (Arab) Desert, and the regions of the western and southern deserts.

The Nile River is 6390 km long, with the beginning of Lake Victoria. If the source of the Kagera River pouring into this lake is accepted as the beginning, it will be 6671 km. According to this, it is the longest one among the rivers of the world, regardless of their arms. Once connected with the Nile, Bahrelgazal and Blue Nile, it enters into Egyptian lands with 250 m. It crosses the whole of Egypt and separates arms in Cairo and reaches the Mediterranean by making a large delta. The length of the Nile River, which is 500 km long and 500 km long after reaching Nasser Lake, is around 2 km. Here one is divided into two main branches, another to the Suez Canal. The delta between the two large branches of the Nile River, Reşit and Damietta, which can reach 23 km in some places, is 23 km. It is 250 km long and 160 km long. As if Egypt is in this region. With the green and fertile watershed of the Nile, the lifeblood of Egypt, Nil, and the green and fertile watershed of the region, left the vast lands of 1.001.449 km2, the majority of which were formed by the yellow desert, and squeezed Egypt to 36,000 km2.

The west and south deserts, which are the continuation of the Libyan Desert and the extension of the Greater Sahara of 10,000,000 km2, are three quarters of the country. The average height of the surface area of ??673.000 km2 of desert plateau is 250 m, except for the rocky rugged terrain at an altitude of 2000 meters in the south west. East (Arab) Lake on the coast of the Red Sea is relatively mountainous, the highest reaches 2100 m, in the north the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea in the south, the Suez Canal in the West and the Gaza Strip in the east, the Gaza Strip in the east, the Gulf of Israel and the south The Sinai Peninsula is a plateau covered with sharp hills such as the East Lake region. These high terrains are full of many straits and passages that make up the Asian-African connections.Mount Sinai, which is the highest peak of Egypt, is 2641 m and Mount El Thbet is 2439 m.

The Mediterranean coasts of Egypt, which are about 1000 m long, are generally erect and unsealed. The delta mouth formed by the Nile River is partially flat. The shores of the Red Sea are 1800 km. Some places are low and sandy and some places are quite high. Current coral reefs are unacceptable. With the Suez Canal opened in 1869, the Mediterranean and the Red Sea were united and the sea route to India was shortened.

Climate

Egypt has a warm and dry climate. Two seasons prevail, summer and winter. The winter months are not hard, but rather soft. On the Mediterranean coast, rainfall is about 200 mm. In the southern regions, the summer days can reach up to 43 ° C and the temperature drops to around 15 ° C in winter. Egypt’s temperature difference between day and night is high. For example, the temperature in the desert region at 37 ° C during the day, can be as low as 15 ° C at night. In addition to the north winds affecting the country, the ortaya hamsin ve wind that emerged in April and May causes sandstorms. This scorching wind runs eastward from the western and southern deserts of the Western Sahara, which covers 80% of the country.

Natural Resources

The arid and warm climate of Egypt prevented the existence of forest areas and the enrichment of vegetation. The coastal areas, lakes and basins in the deserts of the desert and the greenery around the wells are lush and fertile. In other regions it is mostly yellow desert. Deserts generally have arid vegetation. Nile waters, the only source of life in the country, constitute the most important natural resource. The Nile River waters are taken under control, and therefore, only three crops are purchased per year from the fertile delta of the Nile Valley, which constitutes only 1 / 28th of the country. The lake of Assuan sun kmi, south of Nile waters, is 3000 km, the surface area is 5000 km2 and the deepest place is 70 m.

As in vegetation, animals are more mediocre in Egypt than in domestic animals. In the desert regions, the inhabitants generally live gazelles, nubian goats, hyenas, jackals, desert foxes, hares and lynxes. There are also many species of birds and wild ducks. If the plateaus in the areas of rough sting and ostrich live. The waters of the Nile are rich in freshwater bass.

The most important underground source is petroleum. The western and eastern deserts, the Suez Bay and the Sinai Peninsula are rich in oil. Iron ore, phosphate, limestone and salt are other important natural resources.

Population and Social Life

The bridge between Africa and Asia and Europe and Egypt, which is a transit hub between India and the Far East, has been the scene of many invasions throughout history. Her strategic position has made her a major influence in such large matters as the African Union, the Arab Nationalism and the Islamic World. The geography of the country has caused 99% of the Egyptians to live in a narrow basin due to the fusion of many different nations.

Egypt, with a population of 55.979.000, is the most populous country in Africa after Nigeria. Despite the lack of industrialization, the population density in the Nile Valley is almost double that of the densely populated Western European nations. The vast majority of the population consists of whites of Hami descent. There are also Coptic and Nubian people. 99% of the population is Muslim. Arabic is the main language of the people. The Arabic that the fellahs (peasants) live in the villages alone are slightly different from those spoken in the cities. They are also widely spoken in English and French.

People can be divided into five groups in terms of life style. In Egypt, among the developing countries, there are differences between the fellahs (peasants) that constitute the majority of the population, the living and the commercial classes, which are usually living in cities, as well as in the language of life. The administrative level, which generally knows Turkish, is mostly Arabs, North Africans, Turks and British. In addition, today, the Bedouins, who live in the oases with the remaining land owners, have lost their political power. The Egyptian leaders in recent years have increased the number of schools, students, teachers and experts especially after 1952 because they believe that many economic and political problems can be solved through education and training. Only primary education is compulsory, others are optional and free. There are 7 universities other than foreign schools. The most famous are the Al-Azhar University. 50% of the population is literate.

Cairo, the largest city in the African continent, is the cultural center of the Arab world. This city, which was founded in 969 by Arabs, is a modern tourism center with plenty of old and historical artifacts. One of the seven wonders of the world, Alexandria Lighthouse is located in Alexandria, the temple of Abu-Simbel Assuan and the world’s largest sphinx with the three largest pyramids in Giza, other important big cities are. The sphinx named yüksek Horus uzun next to the pyramid of Kefren from the three pyramids in Giza is 73 m long and 20 m high.

Egypt Turkish works of art: Egypt has remained under Turkish influence from the year 826 until the late Ottomans. Many works were built in Egyptian style in Egypt, which was started to be governed by Turkish governors from the time of the Abbasids. The tombs of the Abbasid caliphs in Cairo are beautiful examples of Turkish architecture. Ahmad bin Tulun, one of the Abbasid Governors, built the Ibn-i Tulun Mosque, which still stands today. The fact that this mosque is made of bricks and that the building is like a castle is clearly showing the effects of Turkestan and Samarra in its architectural style. As in Uighur structures, motifs are large and simple.

At the times of Ayyubids, darülhadis, tekke and iwaned madrasahs were built in Turkestan style.

During the Mameluke period, the Turkish ruler, women and gentlemen had built many mosques, complexes, madrasas, lounges, tombs and inns in Turkish architectural style. Today, most of them stand as the Mamluk art monuments.

After the conquest of Egypt by Yavuz Sultan Selim, the architectural style of the Mameluke was forgotten and the Ottoman architectural style was settled in Egypt. Masjids, fountains and monopolies built by the governors during the Ottoman period were built in Ottoman architectural style. Examples include the Suleymaniye Mosque, the Mahmudiye Mosque, the Murad Pasha Mosque, the Mehmed Ali Mosque, the Kethüda Abdurrahman Sabil, and the Ottoman ones. Ottoman mosques in Egypt is the largest domes and minarets fine classical Ottoman monuments, tiles were brought from Turkey.

Political Life

The Republic of Egypt, which is based on the presidential system, is divided into 25 administrative regions (provinces). The president, who is considered the strongest leader, is elected by the public every six years. He establishes the government and conducts the presidency. He also has a vice president who will help him. The remaining 392 members of the assembly, whose ten members are elected by the president, are elected by the people for five years. Egyptian provinces are governed by the olup provincial council edil, which consists of representatives of the governors and the governors.

The military coup in Egypt in 1952 overturned Melik Farouk and the transfer of a new political system began.

During Sadat period, a policy towards more peaceful and economic development was followed. The result was peace with Israel through the US-sponsored Camp David Peace Treaty. Economic development was also carried out and nuclear power plants were built. Hosni Mubarak, who replaced him after Anwar Sadat, did not make any changes to the Sedat model, which is a life of liberal economy, private enterprise, freedom of press and multi-party democracy.

Economy

Egypt is the richest country in Africa in terms of per capita income. But it is among the countries of the world. Before 1980, Egypt was among the ten worst countries in the world. After the Camp David Agreement, Enver was one of the fastest developing countries in the world with 10% development speed with Sadat’s new economic measures.

Egypt was a rather poor and unstable country before the regulation of irrigation systems. After that, the Nile waters were taken under control with the canals opened and the irrigation systems built. Thus, the amount of products that can only be taken once a year is tripled. The Nile Valley and the delta are suitable for agriculture. The most important of the water control systems such as dams and irrigation systems which cause the increase of arable areas is the Great Assuan Dam. The construction of this dam was planned by Kavalali Mehmed Ali Pasha and was completed in 1902 due to various reasons. Lastly, the dam, which was upgraded in 1934, was 4 km long and 110 meters high, making a new land area of ??500,000 hectares available for cultivation. Immediately to the south of the dam is Nasser Lake, 554 km long and 5000 km2.

Thus, 10 billion KW of electricity can be generated from dams with twelve turbines annually. The dam with a volume of 130 billion cubic meters of water has caused a three-fold increase in agricultural products over the last two decades.

In the vicinity of the dam, in the Nile valley and delta and in the coastal regions more cotton, beans, corn, wheat, sugarcane, oil, rice, onions, potatoes, vegetables and fruits are grown.

Egypt is rich in minerals. Petroleum, manganese, zinc, iron, lead, phosphate, chromium, gold, asbestos, sulfur, tungsten and titan are the most important minerals. In addition, limestone, salt, basalt and pink marble are quite abundant.

The most important export products; Cotton, rice, petroleum, natural gas, phosphate, salt, iron, manganese, cigarettes, post and leather. On the other hand, it buys wheat, machinery, technical equipment, war weapon, tools and equipment.

The Egyptian economy is based on industry and tourism other than agriculture. Textile, chemical products, petro-chemistry and cement are the major industries. The current old and historical artifacts attract attention of tourists in every season with its suitable climate and coast. The pyramids and the lighthouse of Alexandria, royal tombs and sphinxes are the major tourist income sources. Besides, Egypt has the traces of many nations with its long and varied history. Especially the Umayyads, Abbasids, Mamluks and mosques and madrasahs dating from the Ottomans, inn and caravanserais are important historical places.

One of Egypt’s other major sources of income is the existing oil wells in the Suez Canal and the Sinai Peninsula.

The Suez Canal was present since the time of the Pharaohs. B.C. In the year 600, the Nile and the Red Sea were united. Later, it was filled with sand. In the times of Yavuz Sultan Selim Khan, Second Selim Khan and Third Khan, attempts were made to channel and finally the canal was excavated in 1859 by the use of more than 50,000 workers in the time of Hajj Said Said. It was put into service in 1869, and three years later its bills were sold to England, but it was nationalized in 1956. The channel has a width of 150 m, a depth of 14 m and a length of 172 km and meets more than half of the Egyptian trade balance. Although the 1967 Israeli War led to the loss of these revenues, it again began to contribute to the pace of economic development after Enver Sadat’s realization of the Camp David Treaty.

Transportation: There is an adequate transportation network between settlements in Egypt. Railways up to 5335 km are operated by the state. The length of the roads has reached 32,241 km. 52% of these roads are covered with asphalt.

Most of the railways and highways are located along the Nile Basin, where the settlement is densely populated.

 

Madagascar

Historical

The first information about Madagascar is derived from Arabian sources, especially in the middle of the 10th century, from El-Mesudi, who visited East Africa. The island has been populated by Indonesians and Africans since our age. In the twelfth century, the Arabs established a small town on the northwest coast. Over time, Islam spread to the island. The island of Gaskar was not known by the Europeans until it was discovered accidentally by a Portuguese in 1500. In 1643 the French established Dauphin Castle on the island, which was then divided into small kingdoms. The Sakalava Kingdoms, which were at the height of the eighteenth century, were replaced by Merina Kingdom at the end of the same century. This kingdom, by signing a friendship agreement with England, opened its door to the Europeans. Meanwhile, the French occupied Nassi Bey in 1841 and wanted to take the Beard in the forefront. France bombed the Sakalava coast, which did not accept its patronage. In 1885, under the authority of a French executive who was the president of his foreign affairs, a kind of state protection was established. In 1896, the French parliament turned Malagasy into a colony. After the Second World War, the Madagasians took up a tough struggle for independence. In 1947, the revolution broke out, and after a brief intervention, the rebellion was suppressed. Between 60,000 and 90,000 people were killed or wounded. The island was then managed directly from Paris. In 1958, Madagascar became a republic in the French League. On June 26, 1960, he gained full independence. After an independence of 10 years, there are still 50,000 French soldiers in the country. Two-thirds of the foreign investments were in the hands of French import-export companies, three-quarters of exports, and more than half of the commercial value plants. In the south, which was dry and poor, in the early 1972, 100,000 students boycotted the end of foreign economic domination. The boycott was digested but, in May 1972, when the city was in a new state of confusion; the government, the military commander left. A temporary government was established between 1972-1975. On 30 December 1975 a second republic was declared. The name of the new state was the Democratic Republic of Madagascar. The new republic followed a broad nationalization policy. French troops were removed. A state of emergency was declared in July because of the internal turmoil that began in early 1991, and after a while the government established by the socialists resigned. After a while, the Council and the High Revolution Council were annulled and Zafy was headed by the High Government Organization. The first round of presidential elections was held on 25 November 1992. The second round was postponed to 1993 due to the election of cheating.

Physical Structure

Madagascar, the fourth largest island in the world, is 1570 km long from north to south with a maximum width of 575 kilometers. The coast line, which is more than about 4800 km, and the change of its geographical structure with the mountain chain extending along its entire length is remarkable. The island is divided into three natural areas of the geography: the mountainous inner region, the east coast and the west coast.

The mountainous inner region, named as the high plateaus, has an altitude of 900 to 1500 m above sea level and contains three mountain ranges with a height of more than 1830 m. The highest peak is Maromokotro (2876 m), on the northern Tsratanna mountain range. The surfaces of the plateaus have different characteristics. In all directions there are deep valleys and deep valleys. In the high mountains of the mountainous region, there are large low pressure areas and marshy plains.

The east coast, which has an average of 50 km, is located between the high plateaus and the Indian Ocean. It is characterized by erosion hills and marshes. The coastline, which contains the Antongil Bay as a single indentation, is parallel to the main axis of the mountains. The rivers pouring from this shore into the Indian Ocean are short but suitable for short distances.

The western coast, which has reached a width of 190 km in some places, has a more variable, more indented, protruding appearance compared to the east coast with its plains depressions and plateaus. This is the most important geographical feature of Madagascar. The rivers poured into the Mozambique Channel are longer and have large sections.

Climate

Climate changes on the island depend on altitude differences rather than latitude differences. The climate is generally hot and humid. The mountainous interior is mild.

There are two seasons in Madagascar: hot (rainy) season and cold (dry) season. It is the period of hot season, daily rains and storms. This season, high plateaus, from the end of November until the end of April continues. The longer the east coast, the shorter the west coast. It takes only two months in the south (range and quarry). The cold season continues from April to November. During this season, the east coast and north west are rainy and high plateaus are humid. The west coast is arid, the southern coast is even more dry. Annual average annual precipitation varies by region. The rainfall on the coast of Antongil, with an area of ??3700 mm, is 2100 millimeters on the northwest coast, 940 millimeters in the west and 355 kilometers in the southwest. This amount varies between 1200-1325 mm in the inner plateau. The average annual temperature is 21 ° C-27 ° C on the coast and 13 ° -19 ° C on the inner plateau. The coldest month is July.

Natural Resources

Once upon a time, the intersection forests covering Madagascar can be found only on the coastline and on the slopes of the central mountain range. Natural vegetation is destroyed by cutting or cutting to open the field. The most dense forests are located in the Ankaizina plateau, in the Tsratanna mountain range and in the Sahamalaza Bay in the northwest. Forests include dark red and fragrant trees and precious trees such as iron trees. In the south, there are frequently spiny shrubs (giant herbs that are involved in cactus and scrub trees). Island animals have a unique feature. Except for the significant crocodiles, there are no large animals such as elephants, monkeys or lions. However, only animals found in Madagascar and resembling monkeys are abundant. Mammals, bats, wild boars, and other mammals are also found. Madagascar contains chrome, mica, graphite and secondary gemstones as underground riches. In 1980, large oil reserves were found. Oil is not currently available.

Population and Social Life

The majority of the people of Madagascar (84%) with a population of 12,804,000 live in rural areas and live in farming. Antananarivo, which has a population of approximately 663,000 and is the only major city in the region, is in the high plateau area. Population growth rate is around 2.6%.

Before and after the French occupation, ethnic groups, which were tightly tied to each other for trade, internal migration and administrative structure, were dispersed. The Merina tribe, which is the most populated and influential group of the people of Madagascar, lives in the middle of the mountainous areas. There are also ethnic groups such as Bertsileo, Sakalava, Mahafaly, Antaimoro and Antaisaka. There are also European, Chinese and Indian minorities in Madagascar. The official language is Madagascar and French. Until the twentieth century, education remained in the hands of missionaries. Today, approximately 50% of the people are literate. Higher education is carried out at Madagascar University and scientific research institutes. About one third of the population of Madagascar is a Christian. Christianity was spread in the country by the missionaries in the nineteenth century. There are several hundred thousand Muslims in Madagascar, especially in the northwest. Most of the people in the countryside continue their old religions.

Political Life

In the Democratic Republic of Madagascar announced on 30 December 1975, the President is elected for seven years. The President presides over the 12-member Revolutionary Council. The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President. There is only one party in the country where the National People’s Assembly has been in office for six years. Madagascar is a member of the United Nations and the African Union.

Economy

Until recently, the economy of Madagascar was under the control of French economic institutions. Today, with an accelerated nationalization policy, the government has nationalized 35% of the industry, 78% of exports, 60% of imports, and banking and insurance.

In the economy, priority is given to agriculture where more than 80% of the population is engaged. Agricultural products such as tobacco, vanilla, tea, cloves, peppers and coffee grown in the country are exported. Rice, the main foodstuff of the people, is grown, but for the people of the city, more than 100,000 tons of rice is imported annually. 10 million cattle raised in Madagascar allow the country to export frozen meat. Agricultural products provide 30% of export revenues. Chrome, mica, graphite and second-order precious stones are exported. Madagascar is expected to become an oil exporting country thanks to the large oil reserves discovered in recent years. Although most of the finished goods are imported, the trade balance shifts in favor of the country due to a strict import policy. Inflation is around 8%.

The transportation area is a major obstacle to social and economic development. The length and maintenance of roads are insufficient. Colonial era railways have not been developed. In response to these deficiencies, airway transportation is being developed. Ivanto airport near the city center is the only international airport in the country.

 

Tanzania

Historical

In the eighth century the Arabs came to Tanzania and spread Islam. Archaeological studies confirm Arabian cities on the coast in the 10th century. In 1499, Vasco de Gama discovered Zengibar while traveling to India. In the next two centuries, the Portuguese Empire kept most of East Africa’s commercial cities under control. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Arab Sultanate of Oman captured the shores of Pemba and Kilwa. In 1840, the ruler of Oman, Sayyid Said ibni Sultan, moved his palace to Zengibar. In the vast majority of the nineteenth century, Zengibar was a strong Sultans holding the ivory and slave trade in the country.

In 1885, Tanganyika came under the rule of Germany. In 1890, Britain took Zengibar under her protection. Tanganyika remained part of German East Africa until the end of the First World War. In 1919 the Treaty of Versailles was divided into German East Africa. The Tanganyika League of Nations was a mandate led by Britain. From 1946 onwards, it became a country ruled by the United Kingdom under the auspices of the United Nations.

The independence movements in Tanganika began in 1954 with the establishment of the Tangshan African National Union Party. On December 9, 1961, Tangany won his independence, and a year later, he announced his transfer to the republic. On December 10, 1963, Britain granted independence to Zengibar. A month later, the Arab Sultanate was overthrown and the republic was declared. On April 26, 1964, the Republic of Tanganyika in East Africa and the Zengibar Island Republic near the coast of Tanganyika merged and became the Republic of Tanzania. In 1977, Tanganyika and Zengibar’s governing parties merged.

In 1980, general elections were held. President Nejerere resigned from his post in 1985 at his own request. Ali Hassan Mwinyi, who succeeded in his place and still is the President, had a policy of opening up to the West economically (1994 January).

Physical Structure

Tanganyika is divided into three different regions: a central high plateau divided by a large valley with a coastal zone, a low plateau region in the east and a geological fault (collapse). The average height of Tanganika from sea level is 900 m. There are some high mountainous lands in the country, primarily at the border. Kilimanjaro Mountain in the north, which reaches an altitude of 5894 m, is the highest point in Africa. There are three large lakes in the country: Malawi, Tanganyika and Victoria lakes.

Zengibar and Pemba are mainly coral islands, located in the Indian Ocean, about 40 km far from the coast of Tanganyika.

Climate

A tropical climate prevails in Tanzania. But the temperature is muted on the islands by regular sea breezes. The coast of Tanganika gets plenty of rainfall. The average annual precipitation in the northern part of the coast is 1500 mm3. The coastal zone is under the influence of monsoon winds blowing in the southwest direction from May to March, from May to October. Although there are two rainy seasons in the interior, the precipitation is not abundant, except for the mountainous regions with an annual rainfall of 2500 mm3, such as Tukuyu in the south. Drought is common in most parts of the central plateau where rainfall is below 760 mm3.

Natural Resources

Various climatic zones allow the growing of a wide variety of plants in the country. On the coast there are mangrove plants and palm trees, bush and boabap trees in the central plateau and the Alpine mountains on Kilimanjaro Mountain. As in other East African countries, Tanganyika has abundant wild animals. Serengeti Plains in the northwestern part of the country are among the most wild animals in Africa. The main animals in the country are gazelles, zebra, cattle, elephant, ape and rhino. The underground wealth of the country is diamond, gold, mineral salt, tin and mica.

Population and Social Life

10% of the people of Tanzania, with a population of 25,900,000, live in cities. The most important city of the country is the city Darüsselam with a population of 769.445. The majority of the population consists of Africans known as Bantu. There are also a small number of Arab, Indian, Pakistani and European in the country.

The majority of Tanzanians live in tribes. The most crowded tribe is Sukuma, near Lake Victoria. Other major tribal groups are Nyamwezi, Haya, Makonde, Ha, Chagga, Gogo, Nyakyusa, Hehe and Masai. The vast majority of the population speaks the language of Swahili, the official language of English.

33% of the country’s population is Muslim, 44% is Christian and the rest is pagan. Islam has come to the shores of Zengibar and Tanganika centuries ago. It was spread in the inner nineteenth century. Christianity was brought to Tanzania by missionaries since 1840.

In Tanzania, 60% of the people are literate. At the university in Dar es Salaam, the University of East Africa and high technical schools in the University of Uganda. The country still benefits from secondary teachers in secondary education and at the university.

Political Life

In Tanzania, the country’s political life is dominated by a single party. The head of state and government is nominated by the party conference and elected by the people. Only one candidate is nominated for this office. Two or more candidates may be nominated for others. There are two co-chairmen. The first of these is the president of Zengibar. Cabinet ministers are elected from the National Assembly. Tanzania is divided into 24 administrative regions, 20 of which are located in Tanganika, 3 in Zengibar and 1 in Pempa. There are many foreign officials in the administrative structure of the country. Most of them have technical, health and civil aviation duties. Tanzania is a member of the United Nations, the African Union and the Commonwealth.

Economy

The Tanzanian economy is mainly based on agriculture. The main food crops that grow in the central plateau are wheat, cassava, cassava and corn. Rice is grown on the shore and in Zengibar. The main trade plants are sisal hemp, cotton, coffee, tea and tobacco. Zengibar is the main source of cloves in the world.

There are few industrial products in the country. manufacturing is limited to textiles, soap, shoes, razor blades, wheels, wheat products and powdered coffee. There is an oil refinery in the country.

The production and trade, which were previously conducted mostly by Europeans and Asians, are increasingly under government control. Most marketing and production activities are now handled by government bodies. Tanzania makes most of its foreign trade with Britain, West Germany and Japan. Coffee, sisal hemp, cotton, cloves, animal skins, tea and wax, as well as a few minerals such as diamonds and gold exports. The main imported goods are machinery, fuels, motor vehicles and chemical products.

In Tanzania, the central railway runs from Dar Es Salaam to the northwestern Kigoma Uji on the edge of Lake Tanganika. One arm goes to Mwanza on the edge of Lake Victoria. The other main railway line runs from Tanga Port to Arusha in the northwest and connects with the Tanganyika central railway line and other railways in Kenya. The major ports are Dar es Salaam, Mtwara and Tanga. Highways are in the form of ring roads connecting most locations to the main railway line. Airlines provide the necessary transportation within the country. There are international airports in Dar es Salaam and Kilimanjaro.

 

Uganda

Historical

Today’s Ugandans are descendants of the two groups of migrants: As the first group, those coming to the south around the 15th century formed the current Bantu peoples of the country; then the second group from the Nile region and Sudan formed the tribes in the north and east. In Uganda, such as Bunyoro, Ankole, Buganda and Toro were established. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the most powerful state was the Bunyoro Kingdom. In the eighteenth century, Buganda took the upper hand in the struggle against Bunyoro to dominate the region. In the 1840s, Arab merchants came to the country, causing some Ugandans to become Muslims. In the 1884-85 Berlin Conference, Europe’s colonialist states agreed on a plan to share Africa. In the late 1880s, he and East Germany exchanged treaties between Britain and Germany. Kenya and Uganda remained to England, Tanganyika. Since 1894, Uganda has come under the auspices of Britain.

On October 9, 1962, Uganda became independent. The thirty-sixth President of the Republic of Uganda passed the Second Mutesa. Afterwards, Dr. In the time of Milton Obote, a few Jewish minorities, 90,000 British and British brought from India, 50,000 Hindu captured all the military, cultural and economic opportunities of Uganda. In 1971, the Army of Uganda They overthrew Milton Obote and brought Idi Amin, the beloved believer, into the head of state. The Jews of Amen expelled the British and Hindus from the country (see Idi Amin). In time, those who passed into Islam quickly multiplied. This situation made some forces extremely anxious. 26 assassinations to kill Idi Amin. Without these results, the Christian Tanzanian occupied Uganda. Returning from exile, Christian plays with political games in December 1980 Milton Obote slaughtered about 100,000 Muslims, children, old people, women. Basilio Olara Okello, who took control of the coup in 1985, was soon overthrown by the National Resistance Movement under the administration of Yoweri Museveni. Museveni, who took the presidency, strengthened his power by neutralizing the dissident Guerrilla groups within three years after the coup. After 1980, the first general elections were held in 1989, and the National Resistance Council won the elections. The country is in social and economic turmoil (1994-February).

Physical Structure

A large part of Uganda is in the highlands. The height of the land from the sea level to the north and north-west is between 600 and 900 meters. The Lake Victoria area ranges from 1000 to 1500 meters. Many mountains are rising on the plateau and they dominate the eastern and western borders of the country. Ruwenzori Mountains with a height of more than 4800 meters are divided by Zaire boundary. The 4321-meter-high Volcanic Mountain Mountain lies along the Kenya border. The 4504-meter-high volcanic Virunga Mountain Range is shared with Zaire and Rwanda.

Approximately 16% of the surface area of ??Uganda (42,439 km2) is covered with water. The main lakes of the country are the lakes of Victoria, Albert, Edward, Kyoga and George. Lake Victoria is the main source of the Nile River.

Climate

Although Uganda is on the equator, the climate is mild due to the high altitude of the country. There is no extreme temperature anywhere in the country. In the south, the average annual temperature ranges between 13 ° C and 23 ° C and in the north between 18 ° C and 30 ° C. Most of Uganda receives at least 1000 mm of precipitation per year. In Uganda, erosion is more important than drought.

Natural Resources

There are many different types of plants in Uganda. The most common plant species is the sparse tree savanna covering the entire north of the country. Other different plant species are trees left from the old forests in the east of Lake Victoria and Lake Albert, arid steppes in the Karamoja region in the east, open savanna in the south and southwest, forests in the highlands and highlands in the highlands. In Uganda, wild animals can be found in many different genera. Chimpanzees, gorillas, elephants, gazelles, lions, hippopotamus, cattle and zebra are the main wild animals of the country. The important underground riches of the country are copper and cobalt.

Population and Social Life

The population of Uganda is 17,200,000, and only a very small percentage (8,1%) of them live in cities. Most of the population is gathered in the east near the Lake of Algon and the Rwanda border, near Lake Victor. The number of people per kilometer is 59. The only major city in the country is the capital, Kampala, with a population of 773,500.

Of the people of Uganda, 98% are of African descent. There are a small number of South Asian, Arab and European. Africans are divided into four main ethnic groups according to the languages ??they use: the Bantu languages, the languages ??of the Nile, the Nil-Hami languages ??and the Sudanese languages. Bantu constitutes 65% of the population and occupies the entire southwestern part of Uganda. The major Bantu groups are Ganda, Nicole, Toro, Nyoro, Soga, Gisu and Kiga. The Nile region is located in the northern inner part of Uganda. Lango, Acholi and Alur groups are the major ones. The Nile-Hami peoples are present in northeastern Uganda, of which the main groups Iteso and Karamojong form. Sudanese groups live in the northwestern corner of Uganda. The largest of these groups is Lugbara.

In Uganda, many different tribal languages ??are spoken. Although not perfect, the tribes in the same language family can communicate with each other. The agreement between the four main groups is usually provided through the official language, English.

62% of Uganda’s people are Christian and the remaining 6% are Muslims. Approximately half of primary school-age children attend school, and 25% of the public are literate. There is a university, higher teacher schools, a technical high school and a high school of commerce in the country.

Political Life

Uganda is a Republic-managed country, divided into 10 states and 34 accidents. The 1967 Constitution was suspended due to military coups. The country is a member of the United Nations, the African Union and the Commonwealth of Nations.

Economy

The economy of Uganda is based on agriculture. The main crops grown are bananas, cassava, broom, corn, peanuts, sesame and beans. The main trade plants are coffee and cotton, accounting for 80% of the country’s exports. Tea and tobacco are also grown for export purposes.

Livestock breeding is developing in Uganda, and cattle, goats and sheep are grown in the northeast and southwest of the country. Fishing in the large lakes and reservoirs of the country is advanced.

Food, cement, building materials and textiles are the developed industries of the country. Tourism is gradually developing.

The length of the Uganda highway is approximately 28,332 km, of which 2240 km is asphalt. The railway running between Kampala and Mombasa, Kenya, was extended to Kasese in the west and from Tororo, on the border with Kenya, to Pakwach near Albert Nile. There are international airports in Entebbe near Kompala.

 

Morocco

Histroical

Research has demonstrated that individuals have lived in Morocco since old occasions. The works of art drawn on different protests and stones found in caverns and archeological unearthings are proof of this case. B.C. Since the year 2000 Berber individuals went to the nation and settled. Later BC. From the second century onwards, Phoenicians, one of the main oceanic and sea exchange the Mediterranean, came to Morocco and built up business states. Carthaginians created from the creating nations in the later history of the Phoenicians and Romans because of the wars of the Carthaginians vanquished, ruled the nation.

In the main century of the Milad, the Vandals from Spain had crushed the debilitated Romans and built up another control over the nation. Muslim Arabs who attempted to spread Islam everywhere throughout the world since the seventh century spread Islam in this nation where they came to spread the religion of the jihad, Allahu teala. Muslims did not remain here, but rather go to Spain. In the eighth century, the principal Muslim ruler in Morocco was established by Sultan Ilk Idris. Afterward, Sultan Idris established the city of Fez and guaranteed that this place turned into a critical Islamic social focus. Keyruvan University, the principal Islamic college, was established. In the eleventh century the place that is known for the incomparable Moroccan state had extended to incorporate Spain in the east, incorporating Tunisia in the east. As of now the nation was the capital ponder. Protecting the state for a couple of hundreds of years, at that point lost its quality by debilitating later. Because of this debilitating, its fringes started to shrivel with each passing day and it was at last attacked by Portugal and Spanish. In the sixteenth century, the nation could get by from the Portuguese and Spanish occupations and made due until the nineteenth century.

France attacked Algeria in 1830 to incorporate it among its settlements. From that point he endeavored to make settlements of Morocco. Furthermore, Britain, Spain and Germany were among the European nations that needed to colonize Morocco. Toward the finish of this exertion and endeavors in 1912, the northern piece of the nation was involved by the Spaniards and the rest was possessed by the French. Morocco, which ended up frontier, was utilized as an essential army installation of partnered armed forces in World War II. Amid these long stretches of war, America advanced toward the shore of the Atlantic Ocean. Toward the finish of World War II, as in other provincial nations, in Morocco, the front against colonialists was made for autonomy. This battle picked up speed with the and Independence Party Part. In 1953, Sultan Beşinci Muhammed was banished by the French. This conduct by the French to break the battle for autonomy in Morocco caused a wicked common war between the general population of the nation and the French for a long time. The war finished with the arrival of Sultan Mohammed the fifth.

In 1956, Morocco proclaimed its freedom to the entire world. After a year, it was reported that Morocco was an emirate and that Sultan Beşid Muhammed got the title of request. Because of a few examinations, Spain was compelled to leave the northern districts where the nation was involved. In 1969, the nation had its present fringes with the Atlantic Ocean leaving the Ifni Base to Morocco.

Physical Structure

The land region of ​​458,730 km2 is the most striking component of the physical structure. These four mountain ranges are isolated by valleys.

The Rif Mountain Range is the northernmost piece of the nation. Parallel to the Mediterranean drift, it begins from the eastern piece of the Strait of Gibraltar. Moves eastbound. The most noteworthy purpose of this mountain go is Tidiguin Mountain and it is 2453 m. Beginning from the south of the eastern end of the Rif Mountains, the mountain goes in the north-east and south-west bearing are known as the Central Atlases. The Rif Mountain Range and the Central Atlas Mountain Range are isolated from one another by the Taza Valley. This valley is a transitional area between the Rif Mountains and the Upper Atlas Mountains in the western part. The Central Atlases are for the most part somewhat higher than the Rif Mountain Range. The most elevated point is around 3000 m. The Upper Atlases are the longest mountain extend in the nation. Beginning from the shores of the Atlantic Ocean to the Atlantic bank of the Atlantic, south-west, north-east course of the nation in the normal parts of the Middle Atlas Mountain Range, with a section toward the west-east bearing. The Upper Atlas Mountain Range is isolated into two by the Telouet Pass, the most essential door. From the west toward the east, it demonstrates a consistently diminishing progression. The most elevated point is the Toubkal Mountain in the western part, which is additionally the most astounding purpose of the nation and has a stature of 4165 m. The remainder of the mountain goes in the nation and the southern one is the Anti Atlas Mountain Range. These mountain goes likewise demonstrate an expanding highlight from west to east in the south-west north-east course. It is seen that it comes to up to 3000 m in the eastern part. It is dropped on the shores of the Atlas. It is situated in an extremely thin strip along the shore of the Atlantic Ocean, which is 500 km from the Mediterranean Sea and 1100 km long. The most vital of these fields are the Tensift, Oum er-Rabia fields on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean. Bou Begreg and Udian are likewise imperative fields.

Morocco is wealthy in streams. This riches is as far as numbers. Since these streams, which are of extraordinary significance for nation farming, are very unpredictable regarding water. Water, which increments in stream rates amid precipitation seasons, diminishes amid dry seasons. Waterways are normally conceived from the Atlas Mountains. Vital streams filled the Atlantic Ocean. In any case, the Muluya River, the longest and most critical stream of the nation, is filled the Mediterranean Sea. Also, the waterways filling the Mediterranean are ordinarily close to the drift, particularly the Rif Mountain extend is a short stream. The Muluya River starts from the center of Morocco and streams into the Mediterranean Sea in the wake of passing the Upper and Central Atlas Mountain Range. The most essential streams filling the Atlantic Ocean are Sebou, Behl, Bou Begreg, Ouem er, Rabia, Tensift and Sous waterways. The Valley of the Draa is a waterway that has emerged from the inside of the Atlas Mountain extend and can’t achieve the sea in the long haul of the year. In spite of the fact that not a pool of extensive size, there are dam lakes normal in Morocco.

Atmosphere

When all is said in done, three diverse atmosphere types are found in the nation. Mediterranean atmosphere is overwhelmed by the stormy Mediterranean atmosphere, the Atlantic Ocean drift, open toward the western breezes, the ocean atmosphere is seen. The focal parts of the nation, the Atlas Mountains and the valleys between them, have a cool atmosphere, particularly in the south-east and inland, with desert atmosphere. While the normal temperature of the nation is expanding from the drift to the internal parts, the normal precipitation diminishes.

As the rain mists brought by the sea from the west breezes amassed in the Atlas Mountains, the beach front regions are the most stormy territories. The normal yearly precipitation is around 800 mm. In the most inland locales, precipitation is relatively nonexistent. In these districts, searing temperatures and subsequently hot, dry breezes are persistent. The normal precipitation after the Central Atlases is around 200 mm. The most inexhaustible precipitation in the nation is among October and April.

Populace and Social Life

Middle Easterners and Berbers establish a substantial piece of the populace around 26,250,000. The nation’s most seasoned occupants are Berbers. Muslims, as in each place they go, spread Islam to individuals, and all Muslims have melded with them as per the request of siblings. Thus, Arabic dialect and culture were received by the indigenous individuals in the twelfth and fifteenth hundreds of years. Be that as it may, there are still areas where Berber culture and traditions proceed. These are generally the inside of the mountain districts. Middle Easterners more often than not sit on the levels between the Atlantic Ocean and the Atlas Mountains. The hair stylists are situated in the wide valleys of the internal districts and in the region of the Rif Mountain Range.

In the nation, before the autonomy, there were 350,000 French in the frontier years. Subsequent to winning their freedom, the dominant part came back to France. The quantity of survivors fell underneath 50 thousand. All of the populace is Muslim. Also, there were around 200,000 Jews who were Christian Catholics with minor French minorities previously 1948. With the foundation of the province of Israel in 1948, all Jews relocated from Morocco to Israel. It is thick in the ripe and irrigable valleys of the Atlas Mountains and the northern slants of the Rif Mountains and the waterfront fields of the Atlantic, where the populace, physical structure and climatic conditions are most reasonable for living. This populace thickness diminishes as it moves towards the internal areas and it tumbles to zero in the desert districts of the south with the exception of desert gardens.

The official dialect of the nation is Arabic. Be that as it may, 70% of the general population communicate in Arabic and 24% speak Berber. French and Spanish are among the dialects ​​spoken in the nation. The dialect of guidance is Arabic, which is the official dialect, yet the schools which offer French training are additionally exceptionally normal.

40% of the populace lives in urban communities, the rest in towns and a couple of live in migrants. One of Morocco’s greatest social issues is movement to urban communities. The urban communities with a populace of more than one million are Casablanca, Fes, Marrakech, Meknes, Oujda, Sofi, Torger and Tetovan. The capital is Rabat. Wanderers live in tents made of hair goat fleece. The kind of house in the towns is round or adobe houses made of wood with straw rooftop. The fundamental foodstuff of the general population is bread, couscous and veggie.

The French did not offer significance to the significance of training after autonomy. While expanding the quantity of essential and optional schools, essential instruction was kept free and required. The quantity of colleges in the nation is three. Keyruvan Islamic University, situated in Fes, is the primary college on the planet.

The most commonplace normal for the Moroccan culture is the commercial centers called uk suk Fas. In the urban areas that have thin and awe-inspiring boulevards, these avenues open to commercial centers called suk. Casablanca, the biggest and most present day city in the nation, which has current urban communities, is an European city established in 1908 by the French. Marrakech is an imperative focus of Islamic culture and craftsmanship built up in the ninth century. It is popular for its royal residences, mosques and fortification. The Huttubiye Mosque here is world-popular.

Political Life

Morocco is represented by protected government. The nation is separated into 16 areas and 2 governorates in authoritative terms. As indicated by the constitution embraced in 1970 by the well known vote, the administrative body is a parliament comprising just of the parliament. The forces of the chose parliament are restricted. The lord (melik) has the privilege to veto the laws he doesn’t need. The official body is the leader and the priests. These are dictated by the request. In 1971, a fizzled upset endeavor was made against King Hassan II. From that point forward, a few changes were made to the constitution and the general population were exhibited to the diversion and acknowledged. Prior to the 1971 established revision, the leader of the official body was the best. It was then consented to be administered by a head administrator.

Economy

Agribusiness: The premise of the Moroccan economy is horticultural. Notwithstanding the new modernization, the second essential monetary field is creature cultivation. These are trailed by mining and industry individually. In the start of horticultural items, wheat, corn, grain, grapes, dates, peanuts; originates from citrus natural products, potatoes, olives and vegetables. Tobacco and cotton development is little. Since the utilization of current agrarian strategies is new, the items created can just address the issues of the nation. The fundamental horticultural items that it can trade are citrus foods grown from the ground.

Creature Husbandry: Widely utilized as dairy cattle, sheep and poultry. It is a world celebrated nation for rearing race ponies. Since chilly stores and tanks are insufficient, creature send out is completed as animals. Egg send out is critical and holds an essential place among creature items. Fisheries are picking up an incentive in the economy with its side offices. Particularly in the Safi and Casablanca ports, fisheries and canned sustenance offices are adequate. The fare of sardines is substantial.