The history of Qatar is very new. The people of the gulf, which is a Sami race, accepted Islam as the people of the Arab Peninsula and surrounding regions during the years when Islam spread. Qatar, for many years under the command of the region’s tribal lords was ruled.

After the domination of the Arabian Peninsula by the Ottomans, sometimes the Iranian Safavids, sometimes the Ottomans and sometimes the Qarsar under the sovereignty. After settling the British into India, Qatar made a treaty with Qatar’s Shaykh and became a free country in the UK’s internal affairs for Qatar foreign affairs. In 1971, he joined the federation with the other sheikhs after the withdrawal of the British from the Persian Gulf and in 1972, he left the federation and declared his independence. The country is still governed by the sheikhs.

Physical Structure

Deserts occupy the south of the country. On the northern side are pastures. The highest point is the limestone hills located on the west coast. The height of these mounds is 76 m. Its shores include low noses, narrow gulfs, salt beds and coral rocks. There are no lakes and rivers within the borders of the country. Water is needed from the sea through wells and treatment plants.

Natural Resources

As the desert climate prevails in the country, the vegetation is scarce. The most important plant communities are grasslands and desert bushes. The country’s most important source of resources is oil. There are also salt beds called sabkha. Plenty of pearls are extracted from the coast.


Very hot and dry climate prevails in Qatar. It is seen that the temperature is up to 49 ° C in summer. In the winter, the weather is a little chilly thanks to rainfall, but it is not cold.

Population and Social Life

In the country with a population of 520,000, a large majority of the population live in Duha and its vicinity. 73% of the population are Arabs, 20% are Iranians and 7% are Pakistanis.

Almost all of the nation’s people are Muslim and the majority of them are spoken in Arabic. In Qatar, primary education is free of charge. Literacy rate is 74.7%. The vast majority of adults are illiterate. Nearly 2000 Catalan students are enrolled in universities in foreign countries.

Political Life

Qatar is the absolute ruler of the Sheikh administration. Today’s sheikh is Khalifa bin Ahmet es-Sani.


The country’s most important source is oil. Oil saved Qatar from poverty and made prosperity a country.

Agriculture: In the past, agriculture could not be done due to the lack of irrigation in Qatar. But today, modern methods of vegetable production is made or even exported.

Although the majority of the farms belong to the Qatarians, they are operated by the Palestinians. Agricultural spraying, seeding, planting of windbreaker trees, soil expulsion are made free of charge by the Ministry of Agriculture.

Industry: The presence of oil has increased the level of life in the country and has also led to the development of the fertilizer and cement industry. Construction industry is very developed. There are also petroleum operation facilities and refineries.

Trade: It sells the most oil and petroleum products to the outside. 95% of the exports are crude oil, the rest of the rest of the natural gas. It also sells ammonia and vegetables. On the other hand, Qatar has many consumables, including foodstuffs, and it is the most popular products for motor vehicles and private cars. Usually trading with Japan, England, Holland, USA, France.

Transportation: There are 2000 km of highway in the country. Railways were not developed. Air transportation is provided by Gulf-Air, the common airline of the Gulf countries. Doha Airport is the most important airport.

Sea transportation is provided by the ports of Um Said and Doha.


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