The first settlers in Canada are considered to be Indians (in the southern part) and Eskimos (in the northern part), crossing the Bering Strait, arriving in North America. In the sixteenth century, Jacques Cartier discovered the territory of Canada. Cartier entered Saint-Laurent Bay between 1534 and 1536, traveled up to present-day Montreal and Québec, and found Canada and included it in France. Since there was no mine in the country at that time, the colonization movement was left unfinished and the Canadian side was frequented only by Morino hunters and fur traders. But the main purpose of the French rulers was to develop hunting, forest and mining operations, to supply the raw materials that France needed, and to spread Christianity through missionaries.

In 1629, the British seized Canada in 1632 France took back. Each year, migrants and mercenaries volunteered to support the settlement in the country.

In the eighteenth century, Canada was left to the United Kingdom by a treaty with England. The British regime was influential in the country between the years 1763-1837 with the British immigrants moving rapidly to Canada.

After the Treaty of Versailles, which ratified the US’s independence in 1783, Canada was flooded with supporters of England. In 1791, England divided Saint Laurent’s lands into two, turning the southeastern sides into French, and the northwest sides into the English state. In both states, the parliamentary regime was established, but the British in general held management in trade.

With the uprising in Upper Canada and Lower Canada in 1837, Europeans allowed the establishment of a government that gave them more say in the administration of the country. In 1867, the British treaty of North America combined Ontario, Québer, Nauvelle-Ecorse and Nouveau-Brunswich.

England’s participation in the First World War between 1914-1918, led to the war in Canada. Canada, a British colony, provided equipment and supplies to the Entente States.

In 1926, at the imperial conference in London, Britain and its dominions were given the status equality. With the 1931 West Minster Statute, Kanda became an independent state. When World War II broke out in 1939, Canada declared war against Germany and emerged strengthened by this war. A treaty made at the beginning of 1989 raised customs between the US and Canada.

Physical Structure

Almost half of Canada consists of the Canadian Shield called the Laurentian plateau. This region of the continent is composed of very old and hard rocks covering an area of ??4,568,889 square kilometers. This region spreads around the Hudson Bay as a shield and extends from the coast of the Labrador and runs along the St.Lawrence River and the Huron and Superior Lakes. After entering the US territory, it passes between the lakes in the northwest and ends at the Arctic Ocean near the mouth of the Mackenzie River. This region is likened to a plate because its edges are higher than the Hudson Bay which forms the middle part. In the south-east, the Kalkan region is abruptly elevated along the St.Lawrence River and Bay from the view of the plain.

St.Lawrence District: Located in the southeast of Kalkan, this region includes southern Ontario in the form of a peninsula and a slightly rippling area to the southwest of the city of Québec. In the Huron Lake, from the Bruce peninsula to the southeast extension, the region is covered with a hard limestone layer. The Niyagara Waterfall is famous for its cleavage of the layer by the Niyagara River. Located between Kalkan and Kanda Appalachies, the St.Lawrence Plains are covered with sea in prehistoric times. Today they look like a sedimentary plain. However, this is not the case of Montreregian Hills, which are eight in number, rising to the east of Montreal. The plains are separated from the Ontario peninsula by an extension to the southeast of Kalkan. This extension is cut by the St.Lawrence River, near the mouth of Lake Ontario.

The Appalachia region: part of the Appalachian mountain system, which includes the eastern border of Québec, the New Foundland island and the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. In the north between the Canadian Shield and the hard rocky terrain in Nova Scotia, the Maritime provinces form a basin.

Inner plains: The triangular section on the west of the Canadian Shield is an extension of the large plains in the US. These inner plains have passed through different geological stages. The first elevation into the plain is the Manitoba height of 490 m (Duch, Riding and Porcupine Mountains) and the second elevation is the Missouri Coteau at 910 m in Saskat Chewan. The accumulation of old ice lakes has led to the loss of the plains. The plains in Saskatchewon and Albetro were carved deeply by the rivers. In the southern part of the region there is the famous Prairie region.

Rivers and lakes: All the rivers born in Canada pour their waters into the sea. Most of these rivers are used both as transportation and energy sources. The most important rivers of the country are the rivers that originate from the east of the rocky mountains, pouring into the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Hudson. From these rivers, the length of the Mackenzian is 3700 km and is poured into the Arctic Ocean. Since this river is frozen in the eight months of the year, transportation is not available. Although the Saint Laurent River is shorter, it is the most important transportation way of the country. It emerges from Lake Ontario, causing a number of lakes to emerge and is poured into the Atlantic Ocean. The length of the estuary which takes place in the sea reaches 40 km.

When it comes to lakes, the size of large and small lakes in the Canadian territory is 250 thousand. The largest of these are Lake Ayı 31.080 km2, Büyük Esir Gölü 28.919 km2, Lake Winnipeg is 24.530 km2. The Saing Laurent lakes series is located between the US and Canada.


There are great differences in climate between regions. In the northern regions, winters are long and cold, and in the west and southeast, they are softer. The average temperature in July is 16 ° C. The most important factors affecting the climate are the distance and proximity to the sea and the North Pole. In the North Pole belt, for example in Euroka, the average winter temperature is -37 ° C. In summer, however, it increases to + 6 ° C. Rain snow can also vary depending on the distance from the sea.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Canada’s land and vegetation are highly dependent on the climate. The forest belt extends from the Mackenzie River to the southern shores of Hudson Bay and the Ungaua peninsula. Only tundralar is found on the infertile soils of the northern part of this belt.

It is possible to find all kinds of wild animals and birds in these forests. Polar bears and musk cows live in the poles. Seals have seals, walruses and whales. Further south, deer, black and grizzly bears, wolves, foxes, beavers and other fur animals are seen.

Mines: Canada has just started to use its vast underground wealth. The most important mines are oil. The other minerals extracted are nickel, iron, copper, zinc, gold, lead and uranium. Canada has long been the world’s largest nickel-producing country.

Population and Social Life

Canada has a population of over 27 million people. The regions with the highest population density are the sea states in the east. Ontario and Québec; then the more western regions (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta) and the Gregorian colony. The population in the north is rare.

Canada is a highly urbanized country, with over two-thirds of the population living in cities. The majority of the population constitutes two major ethnic groups: British-born Canadians, British, Irish, and Scottish (43%) and French-born Canadians (31%). The other part of the population comes from Europe with recent migrations: Germans, Ukrainians, Italians, Hungarians, etc. Indians and Eskimos constitute only 1% of the whole population. The proportion of urban people who accept English as their mother tongue is greater than the proportion of British citizens. According to the statistics, most of the Canadians who speak bilingual live in the regions where the population is of French origin.

Political Life

Canada is governed by the Republic. Its Constitution was adopted in 1867. Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, is also the queen of Canada. There is a governor general appointed by him in Ottawa. The Parliament is composed of the Senate and the House of Commons. The Senate is composed of 102 senators elected by the Prime Minister’s recommendation. The House of Commons consists of 264 deputies, elected for a period of five years, according to the rate of population from each state. Every Canadian citizen has the right to vote in the constituency from the age of 18 onwards.

Canada is a federation of 10 states and two territorial territories.


Canada has extremely rich natural resources. The fertile clumps spread over large areas, the forest belts surrounding the country, the rich fishing areas and the mineral deposits are very diverse. These sources provide the necessary raw material to the industry.

Agriculture: 7,8% of the land is suitable for agriculture and 10% of the workforce is employed in this area. All kinds of crops from wheat to sugar cane, from tobacco to vegetables and fruits are grown in the country.

Canada is one of the most wheat-growing countries. Wheat exports second place in the world after the United States. Other cultivated products include barley, oats, rye. Canada is among the most apple growing countries. Besides the apple, fruits such as pears and peaches are of great importance.

Animal husbandry: Animal husbandry is an important source of income due to the large number of pastures and pastures in Canada. Exports milk and meat products. The most grown animal is cattle. The number of small ruminants and horses is decreasing.

Since fur culture is developed in the country, close to 2000 farms such as mink, fox, otter and shinny are grown.

Forestry: Forests covering approximately 48% of the country’s land are of great importance in the forest industry. However, although only 1% of the workforce is employed, the forest industry has a great contribution to exports. The majority of the products obtained in Québec, where most of the timber resources are found, are used for making pulp. It is made of pine trees that grow in British Columbia, and it is made of pine wood. More than 10 million tonnes of newspaper paper is produced per year in Canada. This is half of world production. Most of this is exported to the US.

Fishing: Fishing is very developed due to the fact that Canada is surrounded by the great oceans to the west and east and there are large lakes in the country. Among fish exporting countries, it ranks third after Japan and Norway. Large, modern fishing fleet, fish, fish, fish, herbs and sardines.

Industry: Canada has been one of the world’s largest industrial forces with factors such as population growth, the abundance of natural resources, the availability of energy resources and the flow of foreign capital to the country.


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