It is believed that the first inhabitants of Japan were migrants from the islands of East Asia and South Pacific. The ancestors of the Japanese people are now known as the Yamato race and are known as M.S. In the 3rd and 4th centuries warriors and clans are believed to be the people of the same race.

At the end of the fourth century, contact was established between the kingdoms of Japan and the Korean Peninsula. After this date, China’s cultural influences were seen in Japan. He had entered here in 538 through Confucian religion and then through Buddhism, India, China, Korea.

The country’s first and permanent government center was established in Nara at the beginning of the 8th century. This empire continued for 74 years between 710 and 784. In 794 a new government center was established in Kyoto. This is where the emperor lived for a thousand years. The move of the capital to Kyoto was the beginning of the Heian era which continued until 1192.

In the Battle of Danoura in 1185, the Minamotos prevailed by destroying the rival Taira King.

The seizure of power by Minemotos has been the beginning of a seven-century period of feudal rule under the leadership of military leaders called Shogun. In 1192, Minamotolar established the government center in Kamakura near Tokyo.

In 1213, the ruling came into power from the Minomotos, the Hogos, which maintained military rule until 1333. During this period, the Mongols attacked North Kyushu twice in 1274 and 1281. The Mongols, who failed in both wars, also withdrew from Japan with the influence of the typhoons.

The short-term empires between 1333 and 1338 were followed by Ashikaga Takauji, a new military administration established in Muromachi, Kyoto. This government continued for more than two hundred years from 1338 to 1578.

In the sixteenth century, Europeans set foot in Japan. In the meantime, missionaries tried to spread Christianity here. The Japanese leaders then banned all foreigners from entering Japan, with the exception of the Dutch and Chinese traders, because they believed that Christianity and western considerations would be harmful to Japan. This small island, with Dutch merchants for two and a half centuries, has been the only point of contact between Japan and the outside world.

In 1853, the American Komodor Matthev C. Peter entered the Gulf of Tokyo with his fleet of four ships, and returned to Japan the following year, convincing the Japanese to sign a friendship agreement with his country. This agreement was followed by agreements with Russia, Great Britain and the Netherlands during the same year. These agreements turned into trade agreements four years later.

In the period of ten years until the collapse of the feudal system of Tokogaua Shogunki in 1867, a great confusion reigned.

Under the command of Emperor Meigi, Japan developed into a modern nation with modern industries, political organizations and a modern model of society. Japan fought the Chinese in 1894-1895 and the Russians in 1904 and 1905. Japan won both wars, took the Sakhalin Islands back to Russia in 1875, captured Formosa and Korea, and had some interests in Manchuria. In 1920 Japan had entered the First World War in accordance with the decisions of the Anglo-Japanese Union.

In 1937, the Japan-China War began. In 1939, Japan fought against the Germans in the First World War, and in 1939 a military alliance was established with Germany and Italy. The Japanese, who looked superior in the early years of the war, suffered heavy losses in the following years. American bombs on August 6, 1945 Hiroshima, and the August 9 atomic bombs threw Nagasaki’ye had revealed the outcome of the Second World War. On September 2, 1945, an official delivery agreement was signed with Japan, which agreed to surrender unconditionally on August 14, 1945.

Seven years later, in September 1951, Japan signed the Peace Treaty in San Francisco with 48 states. With this agreement, which entered into force in April 1952, Japan regained its independence. In 1956, Japan was accepted as a 80th state to the United Nations.

Japan, which has reached its present level of prosperity with a great economic development and has gone so far in technical and scientific life after it gained its independence, is a state that has captured almost all world markets. Liberals have been in power since the Second World War.

The Emperor Hirohito, who passed the throne in 1926, died on January 7, 1989. Instead his eldest son, Prince Akihito, passed the throne and was crowned in November 1990.

Physical Structure

Japan consists of four major islands, Hokkoida, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, and hundreds of small islands off the coastline. 80% of the territory of Japan is mountainous. There are currently 60 active and 165 extinct volcanoes in the country. The most famous mountain in the country is Fuji with a height of 3776 m. This mountain is famous for its elegant appearance and magnificent beauty. One-fourth of the country is covered with volcanic rash and ashes. Hokkaido, the main volcano region, is the south of Kiyusiyu with the northern and central parts of Honşu.

There is a large amount of streams in Japan. These streams have a short and rapid flow length. There are also plenty of crater lakes. The largest lake is Lake Biwa.

The topographic image of Japan is sometimes full of very beautiful landscapes and sometimes very scary landscapes. Snow-fed mountain lakes, rocky gorges and noisy rivers, steep mountain peaks and magnificent waterfalls are famous places to attract tourists.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Japan’s natural vegetation and forests constitute 70% of its territory. The subtropical forests of oak, camphor and bamboo trees are located in the south. To the north of this section, there are forests consisting of broad-leaved trees. In these forests; There are birch, beech, oak, poplar and birch.

The most popular tree species in Japan, except Hokkaido, grows in almost all parts of the country and called yerinde sugi Hok or Japanese cedar. Çok Hinoki lar called çok Akamutsu ”with Japanese selvisi called” Akamutsu “after the most grown trees after Sugi’dan comes from.

Mines: Japan is very poor in terms of mineral resources and does not have many of the mines required to feed the industry. In Japan, there are small amounts of coal, lead, zinc, arsenic, bismuth, pyrite, sulfur, limestone, barite, silica stone, feldspar, dolomite and gypsum. It takes its needs from outside.

Population and Social Life

Japan’s population is 123,200,000 and it ranks seventh in terms of population surplus in the world ranking. Due to the small size of the population density is very high. 77% of the people live in cities. 58% of the people living in cities gathered in Tokyo, Osaho and Nagoya. There are seven big cities with a population of over one million. Tokyo, the capital city, has a population of 8,323,699.


Agriculture: Although the majority of the population lives in cities, agriculture is an important part of the Japanese economy. Only 16% of the total land can be planted. In Japan, agriculture is carried out with very modern methods. At the beginning of the product comes rice. The average rice production is 15.000.000 tons. After rice, most wheat, barley, millet, sugar beet, potato and bean are grown. In addition, tobacco, cotton, tea, as well as a large part of the large variety of fruits are grown.

Livestock: Lack of good grains has led to a relatively small size of livestock. Cattle, sheep and chickens are grown in farms. Although the number of them is small, the product obtained is numerous.

Forestry: Forests cover two-thirds of Japan’s total land. These forests are the main source of the country’s main building material, providing a large portion of the pulp required for paper production. The total number of employees in the forestry and timber industry is around four million. In recent years, however, it has had to import timber in response to increased demand. Lumber is second only to oil.

Fishing: Since Japan is surrounded by seas on four sides, fishing has developed. Very well equipped with modern ships almost all around the world makes fishing. On average, 15 million tons of fish are consumed in the country, and only a very small amount is exported. It is the first in the world in terms of fish production. However, Japanese fishing has declined in recent years.

Industry: Japan is the third industrial country in the world. The industry is mostly concentrated on heavy industry. Major industrial plants are ships, automobiles, electronics and optical devices, locomotives, airplanes, chemicals and all kinds of machinery manufacturing plants. 26% of the workforce is employed in the industrial sector. Japanese industrial establishments are located on a belt extending from the eastern Kanto plain to Kiyusiyu. There are three industrial centers in this region. These are the Keihin region, the Hanshin region and the Chukyo region. The Keihin region includes the cities of Tokyo, Yokohama and Kawasaki. The Hanshin region includes the cities of Osaka, Hyogo and Kyoto. The Chukyo region is surrounded by the dark surroundings with the city of Nagoyo. The industrial centers of Japan, which developed after the war, were founded on the land gained from the sea.

Trading: Exports large amount of industrial products from Japan. The most important product of Japan, which realizes most of the trade by sea, produces machines with a ratio of 30%. This is followed by iron and steel products, cotton products, transportation vehicles, ships, optical devices, raw silk, glass, porcelain, toys, electronic vehicles and fish products.

Imported oil comes from the beginning of the products. This is followed by iron ore, wheat. They also import raw cotton, wool, rubber, raw materials and timber.

Trade with almost all countries of the world. The most traded is USA and Canada, followed by Asian countries.

Transportation: The total length of roads in Japan is 1,098,900 kilometers. Only 65% ??of these roads are asphalt. The length of the railways is around 26,000 km. Railway transportation plays a more important role in Japan than land transportation. Speed ??and underground trains are famous.

Sea transportation is developed because it is an island state. There are many ports all around the world. Most of the trade is provided by the sea trade fleet.

Air transportation: provided by Japan Airlines. The most important airports in Tokyo and Osaka are international airports. There are 71 airports with scheduled flights.




The history of Qatar is very new. The people of the gulf, which is a Sami race, accepted Islam as the people of the Arab Peninsula and surrounding regions during the years when Islam spread. Qatar, for many years under the command of the region’s tribal lords was ruled.

After the domination of the Arabian Peninsula by the Ottomans, sometimes the Iranian Safavids, sometimes the Ottomans and sometimes the Qarsar under the sovereignty. After settling the British into India, Qatar made a treaty with Qatar’s Shaykh and became a free country in the UK’s internal affairs for Qatar foreign affairs. In 1971, he joined the federation with the other sheikhs after the withdrawal of the British from the Persian Gulf and in 1972, he left the federation and declared his independence. The country is still governed by the sheikhs.

Physical Structure

Deserts occupy the south of the country. On the northern side are pastures. The highest point is the limestone hills located on the west coast. The height of these mounds is 76 m. Its shores include low noses, narrow gulfs, salt beds and coral rocks. There are no lakes and rivers within the borders of the country. Water is needed from the sea through wells and treatment plants.

Natural Resources

As the desert climate prevails in the country, the vegetation is scarce. The most important plant communities are grasslands and desert bushes. The country’s most important source of resources is oil. There are also salt beds called sabkha. Plenty of pearls are extracted from the coast.


Very hot and dry climate prevails in Qatar. It is seen that the temperature is up to 49 ° C in summer. In the winter, the weather is a little chilly thanks to rainfall, but it is not cold.

Population and Social Life

In the country with a population of 520,000, a large majority of the population live in Duha and its vicinity. 73% of the population are Arabs, 20% are Iranians and 7% are Pakistanis.

Almost all of the nation’s people are Muslim and the majority of them are spoken in Arabic. In Qatar, primary education is free of charge. Literacy rate is 74.7%. The vast majority of adults are illiterate. Nearly 2000 Catalan students are enrolled in universities in foreign countries.

Political Life

Qatar is the absolute ruler of the Sheikh administration. Today’s sheikh is Khalifa bin Ahmet es-Sani.


The country’s most important source is oil. Oil saved Qatar from poverty and made prosperity a country.

Agriculture: In the past, agriculture could not be done due to the lack of irrigation in Qatar. But today, modern methods of vegetable production is made or even exported.

Although the majority of the farms belong to the Qatarians, they are operated by the Palestinians. Agricultural spraying, seeding, planting of windbreaker trees, soil expulsion are made free of charge by the Ministry of Agriculture.

Industry: The presence of oil has increased the level of life in the country and has also led to the development of the fertilizer and cement industry. Construction industry is very developed. There are also petroleum operation facilities and refineries.

Trade: It sells the most oil and petroleum products to the outside. 95% of the exports are crude oil, the rest of the rest of the natural gas. It also sells ammonia and vegetables. On the other hand, Qatar has many consumables, including foodstuffs, and it is the most popular products for motor vehicles and private cars. Usually trading with Japan, England, Holland, USA, France.

Transportation: There are 2000 km of highway in the country. Railways were not developed. Air transportation is provided by Gulf-Air, the common airline of the Gulf countries. Doha Airport is the most important airport.

Sea transportation is provided by the ports of Um Said and Doha.


South Korea


History of Korea It dates back to 3000. After the hands of China, Buddhism and the Chinese remained under the influence. Later, from the 7th century until the 20th century, he lived independently under the rule of various dynasties. In 1910, the Japanese invaded Korea and turned it into a colony. This situation lasted until 1945. After the defeat of Japan in the Second World War, South Korea was occupied by the US and North Korea by Russia. Thus, the communist regime in the north and the democratic regime in the south were established.

On June 25, 1950, North Korean troops, under the command of Russian officers, attacked and invaded South Korea to assert communism. Upon this, the UN decided to save South Korea. UN troops were sent to the area. This army of Turkey, joined a brigade. Mehmetçik showed great success for the removal of the occupying communist units from South Korea. The victory of Mehmetci was spread all over the world. As a result of the negotiations on July 27, 1953 a truce was signed. 38. Parallel South Korea was accepted as a border between North Korea. After the war, the democratic regime based on the presidential system was passed. The unification with North Korea is on the agenda, and it is hoped that it will soon become a single state.

Physical Structure

South and west coast of South Korea is very indented and protruding. It is surrounded by many peninsulas and small islands. In these parts, Pusan ??and Inchon are the most important ports. Although the eastern part is mountainous, the western part is covered with large areas, plains and hills. There are no natural ports in the eastern part. It is usually mountainous. But the mountains are not high. The highest mountain is Chiri San Mountain with 1915 m. Important rivers include the Naktong, Han and Inchon Rivers.


The climate of Korea is influenced by the cold winds blowing through the winter, and the hot and humid monsoon winds blowing from the Pacific in the summer. The surface shapes of the country affect the climate. Monsoon winds also include tropical plants among the vegetation. The average annual precipitation is 1270 mm. In the south, there are frequent typhoons in September. The lowest temperature in the country is 3 ° C and the highest temperature is 24 ° C.

Natural Resources

In the country, which was formerly covered by forests, forests were not lost due to uncontrolled slaughter, fire and disease. But there are scattered pine and bamboo trees.

It’s not rich in metal. But it is one of the leading countries in tungsten production. In addition, coal, iron, fluorine, graphite, gold, copper and lead are removed in small amounts.

Population and Social Life

The Korean population was 15 million in 1945, but today it has exceeded 43 million because of immigrants from North Korea. 32% of the people live in cities. The biggest city, the capital, is Seoul. Although Korea is a bridge between China and Japan, it has developed a unique culture. Koreans living in villages, dress and live like centuries ago. The inhabitants of the cities are under the influence of the western world.

Majority of the people believe in Confucianism and Buddhism. There are up to 10% Christian. The Islam, which was introduced by the Korean Turkish brigade, is spreading day by day. The official language used by the people and the Korca.

Training: Education is compulsory and free of charge between the ages of 6-12. The literacy rate in the country is 92%. In South Korea, there are 82 universities with 72 universities.

Political Life

The 1972 Constitution gave the President the mandate elected by the National Conference for 6 years. The National Assembly has 276 members. Members of the Assembly are elected by the people for 4 years. The President has the authority to terminate the assembly.


The basis of the country’s economy is agriculture. Besides, fishing and tungsten mine are important in the industry and economy.

Agriculture: The fertile soil of the Korean Peninsula remained within the borders of South Korea. Rice cultivation takes an important place because it is the main food of the people. Rice production is over 7 million tons. Other than rice, wheat, barley, potato, soybean, tobacco and sugarcane are grown in the country.

Fisheries: One of the country’s major sources of income is fishing. Since the three sides of the country are surrounded by sea and open sea fishing, fish are hunted to be exported.

Industry: After the peninsula is divided into two, South Korea has rapidly developed its industry with the loans it has obtained from outside and has been able to export various industrial products. Weaving, paper, plywood, electrical and electronic tools are advanced. We also have plastic materials, paint, fertilizer, cement, glass factories and car factories. The engine industry was also established.

Trade: South Korea exports woven, plywood, electronic instruments, land vehicles, electrical appliances, tungsten, fish and fish products to the outside. Most of the countries selling clothing. From the outside, it takes machinery and grain. South Korea is one of the countries that trade in the United States, Japan and Hong Kong. Annual export amount is around $ 20 billion




B.C. Iran was known since 3000 years. It is known that the oldest known of the Elamis in the BC BC. The empire they established in 1100-600. The empire, which was founded by the Medes instead of the Elamlins, was founded by the Persian King. He destroyed it in 550 and took it under his domination, including a large part of Anatolia.

Alexander the Greeks under the command of BC In 330, they captured all the land of Iran. After that, the sovereignty of the Parthians and Sassanids continued in the Iranian territory.

The collapse of the Sassanids was caused by the Islamic armies taking over Iran. During the reign of Hazrat Umar, many flights were organized on Iran. The Islamic armies that entered into the flock of Iran, conquered Azerbaijan, Tabaristan, Djurcan, Rey, Kumis, Karvin, Zanjan, Hemedan, Isfahan and Khurasan. After the death of Hazrat Umar, some confusion occurred in Iran. On this, Hazrat-i Osman sent troops to suppress the rebellions and punished his ringleaders. Thus, the dominance of Islam was ensured in Iran.

At the beginning of the Hijri al-Umiid, the descendants of Safiyyuddin Erdebili, a Persian, established a Sunni sect in Iran. In his name, this order was given the name Safaviye. The Ottoman sultans have given many gifts to those members of the sect who served Islam. However, starting from Hodja Ali, the hostility of Eshab-i kiram started to spread among the members of this road. Then Sheikh Ibrahim, who became the head of the sect, embraced extreme Shiite views. After that, she was succeeded by Shaikh Haydar. After Sheikh Heydar’s death, his son, Shah Ismail, was crowned. Shah Ismail, destroyed the State of Akkoyunlular custody, Iran established the Safavid Dynasty. At that time Shiism was the official religion of the state. In this period, the most important issues of the dynasty was to fight the Ottomans. In 1514, the Ottoman Sultan Yavuz Sultan Selim in Shahdiran, Shah Ismail was severely defeated and Tabrizi conquered (See ÇaldiranMuharebesi). After the death of Shah Ismail the throne passed to the Ottomans in the hands of the Ottomans.

The collapse of the Safavid Dynasty. The first sign of the fall was the rebellion of the Afghan Mir Veys in Kandehar in 1709. After that, Afghans frequently organized military campaigns on Iran. But they never had Iran completely. In 1729 the Safavids seized re-management. But this time, the Russian Tsar Petro Petro has been eyeing Iran to open the necessary trade routes. The Ottomans organized an expedition against Iran in order to prevent Iran from reaching the Russians. There was a danger of a war between the Ottomans and the Russians, but the two states did not agree as they thought, and they shared Iran among them. This deal didn’t last long. Tahmasb was trying to gather an army in northeastern Iran. Tsar Petro announced that he would welcome the throne to pass to the Safavid Dynasty. But it was not enough for the Safavid Dynasty to seize the throne. With Nadir Shah, the sovereignty of the Afshar line begins on Iran. But this did not last long. After the murder of Nadir Shah, a power vacuum emerged and three different opponents emerged for the throne. These are: Zendler, Afghans and Kajas. Zendlerin management of them for a short period of time to 40 years was not. After that, the country’s administration remained in the hands of the Qajars until 1925.

The period between 1925-1979 was the period when the Pahlavi dynasty was under the throne of Iran. During the time of the caliphate of the Pahlavi family, the most depressing period was the Second World War. After 1938, the influence of the German influence in Iran began to make itself felt, as a result of the presence of many Nazi-Germany technicians in Iran, especially the United States, allied states were anxious. The tension began in 1952, when Iran’s diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom advanced until the cut. The Iranian prime minister, Mossadeq, made great concessions to the Iranian Communist Party, Tudeh, and tried to use them as a lever against the West, causing unrest in the country. Thereupon the Shah, Musaddish azu dismissal of the General Zahid replaced the appointed.
In 1963, the Shah altında White Revolution altında underwent major economic and social reforms in the country. The increasing oil revenues and the large expenditures made especially for the defense of the country began to bring Iran among the countries that have a strong influence in the Middle East. The Iranian Shiite leader Khomeini, who was in exile in France at this time, gathered around the majority Shia, taking advantage of the dominance of the Shiite faith in the country. As a result of many internal and external struggles, Khomeini ruled Iran. The Shah family left Iran and began to rule with the Shia faith in the country. In 1979, the Iranian Islamic Republic of Iran, the country that took the name of the Shia, the Iranian, accused of anti-state by stealing unquestioned lead.

Iran, under Khomeini administration, started war with Iraq on 22 September 1980 and hundreds of thousands of Iranians died in this war. On 20 August 1988, the ceasefire was stopped. Ayatollah Khomeini’s death in 1989, when he was replaced by President Ali Hameney in August of the same year, and Hamedey the President of parliament, Hashemi Rafsanjani, as President. Upon the invasion of Kuwait by Saddam Hussein, he declared that Iran fully accepts the conditions of peace. Thus, the war that started in 1975 resulted in a peace agreement in 1990 and the diplomatic relationship between the two countries was re-established.

Physical Structure

A large part of Iran consists of high plains and large deserts. The country’s high plains are limited to the Elbrus Mountains in the north and the Zagros Mountains to the southwest. The center of this plain is covered by two large desert. Deşt-i Kebir (Salt desert) and De?-i Lut (sand desert) are a desert. During the rainy seasons, the floods come from the mountains and leave them to Dest-i Kebir.

A large part of Iranian territory is higher than 1000 m above sea level. There are North Iranian mountain ranges in the north that exceed 3000 m. In this part of Iran, Elbrus Mountains, which separates the Caspian Sea from the plateaus in the inner region of Iran, reaches to a height of 4000 m. This mountainous area towards the east descends and shrinks. To the west of the Elbrus Mountain range lies the mountainous region of Azerbaijan, where the Rezaiye Lake and its basin are located. The Tabriz Plain is located just east of Rezaiye Lake. The deepest place of Rezaiye Lake is 14 m and its surface area is 5000 km2. The mountains surrounding the south of Iran meet under the name of South Iranian Mountains. There are also many volcanic mountains in Iran. The Great Hatchet is one of the widest deserts of the earth’s flat. Kuzistan Plain is an extension of Mesopotamia. Iran is a country without large rivers. Karun, Akçay and Karaçay are the most important streams.


In terms of climate, Iran is a country with very different regions. The parts facing the Caspian Sea are very moist and always rainy. All of the Iranian lands outside this region are in the subtropical arid zone.

The north-facing slopes of the Elbrus Mountains, which turn the northern sides of the Caspian Sea, are covered with rich forests, with an average rainfall of 1000-1500 mm per year. The narrow coastal plains are very humid. In the south, the climate is mild, but there is often a significant warmth. Isfahan receives a rainfall of 120 mm per year. Rains generally fall at the end of winter and early summer. The inner plains, separated by high mountains from the sea, are not affected by the low air pressure seen in the Mediterranean during the summer. Here, the climate is very hot in summers and the winters are very cold.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: the mountainous areas of Iran are covered with forests. In the coastal region of the Caspian Sea, a bushy forest cover resembles a Black Sea plant community. In these sections and highlands, high steppes take a large place. The desert areas of the desert steppes with salt marshes in the troughs of the inner regions extends. Various cultural crops are cultivated in fertile soils that can be irrigated and watered. In arid regions, they look like oasis.

There are few tigers, leopards, wolves, bears and foxes in Iranian forests today. The gazelle inhabits the empty lands around the deserts. Wild goats and various hunting birds are found in mountainous regions.

Mines: Iran is rich in minerals. In the northern and western regions, there are coal deposits between Tehran-Semnan north, Yezd and Keran, Damgan gold and Anarakranta nickel deposits. There are also bauxite, lead, antimony, cobalt, silver, tin, copper, sulfur and salt mines. Horasan’s bluish greenish jewels called Turhis are famous.

The biggest wealth of Iran is oil deposits. Iran provides 6% of the world’s oil.

Population and Social Life

The population of Iran is 59.570.000 and it falls to 20 km2. 20% of Iranian population lives in cities. The majority of the people are Persian. 60% of the people are Persian, 20% are Turks, 10% are Arabs, 8% are others and 2% are Kurds. There are around 10 million Turks in Iran. Most of the people are Shiites. The majority of the rest is Sunni and the dominance is in the hands of Shiites. The most common language in Iran is Persian. But more than half of the population uses various languages ??and dialects such as Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Beluchi and Gilaki. Although education is compulsory for boys and girls, this is not possible in remote villages. There are 10 universities in the country. The main cities are Tehran, Tabriz, Isfahan, Abadan and Kum.

Political Life

At the beginning of 1979 in Iran, Khomeini movement was terminated and an Islamic Republic was established. The administration in Iran, which is dominated by Shiites in the administration; The Assembly is led by a religious leader who is deemed to be the representative of the twelve Imams, the ministers, the prime minister and the president, and the custodian. With the constitutional amendment in 1989, the position of the president was strengthened.


Iran is a country of agriculture and livestock. Political developments have led to a decline in the economy, leading to a decline in national income.

Agriculture: Most of the population is engaged in agriculture. One-seventh of Iran is arable and suitable for agriculture. Most of the agricultural products are wheat and barley. Besides fruits and vegetables, rice, lentil, chickpea, sugar beet, onion, cotton, melon, watermelon, mulberry and tobacco are grown. In a narrow coastal strip on the north, agriculture can be done without the need for irrigation, and the palm is grown in the south through irrigation channels. Irrigation is a significant problem in the south and southeast of the country. In many regions, agriculture is based on old methods. Therefore, the desired result can not be obtained in agriculture.

Livestock: Livestock holds an important place in Iranian economy. Most sheep are fed. The wool of the sheep fed is sought after and very valuable. Generally, livestock is carried out in high grassland and mountains of mountains. Most sheep are fed after sheep. Fishing is done in the Caspian Sea. Here, sturgeon and caviar are obtained.

Industry: Modern industry has little development in Iran. Despite the availability of small beds, coal, iron ore, lead, nickel and copper are extracted. In addition to the carpet weaving, weaving and leather processing, Iran has also started to develop various industries. Weaving, cement, sugar factories, foundry and chemical industries are some of these. Iran’s largest source of wealth and energy is oil. Petroleum processing plants and refineries are the major industrial plants of Iran.

Oil in Iran was discovered by foreigners, processed by them, nationalized in 1951. Oil from various centers is brought to the Abadan oil refinery, one of the largest oil refineries in the world.

Trade: Iran is a country that exports more than imports. Oil is the beginning of the products exported. It sells more than 80% of the oil obtained. Other export materials are cotton, carpet, fruit, rice, wool and leather. Imported goods include sugar, machinery, textiles, steel, tea, motor vehicles.

Transportation: There are 12,000 kilometers of road and 4,601 kilometers of rail network in Iran.

The main ports of Abadan, Hürremşah, are located in the Gulf of Basra. In the Caspian Sea, Benderşah and Bender Pehlevi are also important ports. There are international airports in Tehran and Abadan.




The first settlers in Canada are considered to be Indians (in the southern part) and Eskimos (in the northern part), crossing the Bering Strait, arriving in North America. In the sixteenth century, Jacques Cartier discovered the territory of Canada. Cartier entered Saint-Laurent Bay between 1534 and 1536, traveled up to present-day Montreal and Québec, and found Canada and included it in France. Since there was no mine in the country at that time, the colonization movement was left unfinished and the Canadian side was frequented only by Morino hunters and fur traders. But the main purpose of the French rulers was to develop hunting, forest and mining operations, to supply the raw materials that France needed, and to spread Christianity through missionaries.

In 1629, the British seized Canada in 1632 France took back. Each year, migrants and mercenaries volunteered to support the settlement in the country.

In the eighteenth century, Canada was left to the United Kingdom by a treaty with England. The British regime was influential in the country between the years 1763-1837 with the British immigrants moving rapidly to Canada.

After the Treaty of Versailles, which ratified the US’s independence in 1783, Canada was flooded with supporters of England. In 1791, England divided Saint Laurent’s lands into two, turning the southeastern sides into French, and the northwest sides into the English state. In both states, the parliamentary regime was established, but the British in general held management in trade.

With the uprising in Upper Canada and Lower Canada in 1837, Europeans allowed the establishment of a government that gave them more say in the administration of the country. In 1867, the British treaty of North America combined Ontario, Québer, Nauvelle-Ecorse and Nouveau-Brunswich.

England’s participation in the First World War between 1914-1918, led to the war in Canada. Canada, a British colony, provided equipment and supplies to the Entente States.

In 1926, at the imperial conference in London, Britain and its dominions were given the status equality. With the 1931 West Minster Statute, Kanda became an independent state. When World War II broke out in 1939, Canada declared war against Germany and emerged strengthened by this war. A treaty made at the beginning of 1989 raised customs between the US and Canada.

Physical Structure

Almost half of Canada consists of the Canadian Shield called the Laurentian plateau. This region of the continent is composed of very old and hard rocks covering an area of ??4,568,889 square kilometers. This region spreads around the Hudson Bay as a shield and extends from the coast of the Labrador and runs along the St.Lawrence River and the Huron and Superior Lakes. After entering the US territory, it passes between the lakes in the northwest and ends at the Arctic Ocean near the mouth of the Mackenzie River. This region is likened to a plate because its edges are higher than the Hudson Bay which forms the middle part. In the south-east, the Kalkan region is abruptly elevated along the St.Lawrence River and Bay from the view of the plain.

St.Lawrence District: Located in the southeast of Kalkan, this region includes southern Ontario in the form of a peninsula and a slightly rippling area to the southwest of the city of Québec. In the Huron Lake, from the Bruce peninsula to the southeast extension, the region is covered with a hard limestone layer. The Niyagara Waterfall is famous for its cleavage of the layer by the Niyagara River. Located between Kalkan and Kanda Appalachies, the St.Lawrence Plains are covered with sea in prehistoric times. Today they look like a sedimentary plain. However, this is not the case of Montreregian Hills, which are eight in number, rising to the east of Montreal. The plains are separated from the Ontario peninsula by an extension to the southeast of Kalkan. This extension is cut by the St.Lawrence River, near the mouth of Lake Ontario.

The Appalachia region: part of the Appalachian mountain system, which includes the eastern border of Québec, the New Foundland island and the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. In the north between the Canadian Shield and the hard rocky terrain in Nova Scotia, the Maritime provinces form a basin.

Inner plains: The triangular section on the west of the Canadian Shield is an extension of the large plains in the US. These inner plains have passed through different geological stages. The first elevation into the plain is the Manitoba height of 490 m (Duch, Riding and Porcupine Mountains) and the second elevation is the Missouri Coteau at 910 m in Saskat Chewan. The accumulation of old ice lakes has led to the loss of the plains. The plains in Saskatchewon and Albetro were carved deeply by the rivers. In the southern part of the region there is the famous Prairie region.

Rivers and lakes: All the rivers born in Canada pour their waters into the sea. Most of these rivers are used both as transportation and energy sources. The most important rivers of the country are the rivers that originate from the east of the rocky mountains, pouring into the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Hudson. From these rivers, the length of the Mackenzian is 3700 km and is poured into the Arctic Ocean. Since this river is frozen in the eight months of the year, transportation is not available. Although the Saint Laurent River is shorter, it is the most important transportation way of the country. It emerges from Lake Ontario, causing a number of lakes to emerge and is poured into the Atlantic Ocean. The length of the estuary which takes place in the sea reaches 40 km.

When it comes to lakes, the size of large and small lakes in the Canadian territory is 250 thousand. The largest of these are Lake Ayı 31.080 km2, Büyük Esir Gölü 28.919 km2, Lake Winnipeg is 24.530 km2. The Saing Laurent lakes series is located between the US and Canada.


There are great differences in climate between regions. In the northern regions, winters are long and cold, and in the west and southeast, they are softer. The average temperature in July is 16 ° C. The most important factors affecting the climate are the distance and proximity to the sea and the North Pole. In the North Pole belt, for example in Euroka, the average winter temperature is -37 ° C. In summer, however, it increases to + 6 ° C. Rain snow can also vary depending on the distance from the sea.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Canada’s land and vegetation are highly dependent on the climate. The forest belt extends from the Mackenzie River to the southern shores of Hudson Bay and the Ungaua peninsula. Only tundralar is found on the infertile soils of the northern part of this belt.

It is possible to find all kinds of wild animals and birds in these forests. Polar bears and musk cows live in the poles. Seals have seals, walruses and whales. Further south, deer, black and grizzly bears, wolves, foxes, beavers and other fur animals are seen.

Mines: Canada has just started to use its vast underground wealth. The most important mines are oil. The other minerals extracted are nickel, iron, copper, zinc, gold, lead and uranium. Canada has long been the world’s largest nickel-producing country.

Population and Social Life

Canada has a population of over 27 million people. The regions with the highest population density are the sea states in the east. Ontario and Québec; then the more western regions (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta) and the Gregorian colony. The population in the north is rare.

Canada is a highly urbanized country, with over two-thirds of the population living in cities. The majority of the population constitutes two major ethnic groups: British-born Canadians, British, Irish, and Scottish (43%) and French-born Canadians (31%). The other part of the population comes from Europe with recent migrations: Germans, Ukrainians, Italians, Hungarians, etc. Indians and Eskimos constitute only 1% of the whole population. The proportion of urban people who accept English as their mother tongue is greater than the proportion of British citizens. According to the statistics, most of the Canadians who speak bilingual live in the regions where the population is of French origin.

Political Life

Canada is governed by the Republic. Its Constitution was adopted in 1867. Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, is also the queen of Canada. There is a governor general appointed by him in Ottawa. The Parliament is composed of the Senate and the House of Commons. The Senate is composed of 102 senators elected by the Prime Minister’s recommendation. The House of Commons consists of 264 deputies, elected for a period of five years, according to the rate of population from each state. Every Canadian citizen has the right to vote in the constituency from the age of 18 onwards.

Canada is a federation of 10 states and two territorial territories.


Canada has extremely rich natural resources. The fertile clumps spread over large areas, the forest belts surrounding the country, the rich fishing areas and the mineral deposits are very diverse. These sources provide the necessary raw material to the industry.

Agriculture: 7,8% of the land is suitable for agriculture and 10% of the workforce is employed in this area. All kinds of crops from wheat to sugar cane, from tobacco to vegetables and fruits are grown in the country.

Canada is one of the most wheat-growing countries. Wheat exports second place in the world after the United States. Other cultivated products include barley, oats, rye. Canada is among the most apple growing countries. Besides the apple, fruits such as pears and peaches are of great importance.

Animal husbandry: Animal husbandry is an important source of income due to the large number of pastures and pastures in Canada. Exports milk and meat products. The most grown animal is cattle. The number of small ruminants and horses is decreasing.

Since fur culture is developed in the country, close to 2000 farms such as mink, fox, otter and shinny are grown.

Forestry: Forests covering approximately 48% of the country’s land are of great importance in the forest industry. However, although only 1% of the workforce is employed, the forest industry has a great contribution to exports. The majority of the products obtained in Québec, where most of the timber resources are found, are used for making pulp. It is made of pine trees that grow in British Columbia, and it is made of pine wood. More than 10 million tonnes of newspaper paper is produced per year in Canada. This is half of world production. Most of this is exported to the US.

Fishing: Fishing is very developed due to the fact that Canada is surrounded by the great oceans to the west and east and there are large lakes in the country. Among fish exporting countries, it ranks third after Japan and Norway. Large, modern fishing fleet, fish, fish, fish, herbs and sardines.

Industry: Canada has been one of the world’s largest industrial forces with factors such as population growth, the abundance of natural resources, the availability of energy resources and the flow of foreign capital to the country.


Costa Rica


When Christopher Columbus came out to a small island near the shores of the Caribbean on September 18, 1502, he named it bir Costa Rica ında which means çıktı Rich Coast Krist because of the gold deposits here.

Today’s natives of the country are Spain, who migrated here from Guatemala in the sixteenth century. Since there were no Indians and African slaves here, the Spaniards committed their own territory. The colonial era of Costa Rica was in poverty and misery.

Costa Rica, which declared its independence on September 15, 1821, was thus saved from the Spanish yoke. Until 1838, his foreign policy was tied to the Central American Union. In 1838 he left the unit.

In 1842, the government of Braulio Carilol was overthrown by General Francisco Morasan to form the Central American Association. But soon after he was killed, he was killed. After that, a 7-year period of anarchy began in the country. In 1849, former President Mora came to work again. The scheme provided and made reforms. After that, in Costa Rica, which changed half a dozen presidents from 1859 to 1870, a strong government was formed by Tomas Guordia after 1879, and in December 1871 a constitution was issued.

In the nineteenth century, the economy began to develop in the country. For the pressure of America and for various reasons, the heads of state have changed continuously.

Under the leadership of Refael Calderon Guordia in 1940, Costa Rica’s relations with the United States improved. When the Japanese attacked Peal Harbor, he and the United States declared war on Japan. She helped in the defense of the Panama Canal. In 1944, Costa Rica became a member of the United Nations, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the IMF.

As a result of the internal turmoil in the elections held on 8 February 1948, José Figueres made a revolution, took over the administration and put in force the old constitution. In 1949 Ulate Blanca was elected president. To date, the country has experienced different presidents period. After 1949, the Army did not interfere in our administration. Costa Rica, which adopts democracy, is one of the best American countries to implement this regime.

Physical Structure

The surface shapes of the country are examined in three main sections. Behind the coast of Karaib Karaib, there is a narrow and alluvial land. In this area, the northwest-southeastern elevation belt with Cordillera de Guanacaste to the north and Cordillera de Talamana to the south; to the west of the ridge belt, between the Nicaya and Osa peninsula, the coast of the Great Ocean.

Elevations start at the west of Lake Nicaragua. Irazu 3432 m and Turrilaba 3328 m form the highest volcanoes in the country. Talamanca Mountain range of 2740 m high hills are found.

The eastern coasts of the country are indentations and protrusions, while the west coasts are numerous. Coco Island, 480 km away from the west coast, belongs to Costa Rica. The hillsides that descend from the mountainous interior to the coastal plains are quite steep.


In the coastal plains where the East Alize winds dominate, the humid equatorial climate prevails, while the central parts are warm and the climates dominate in high places. But the cold is not violent. The average temperature in the coast is between 25 and 32 ° C, in the middle between 21 and 27 ° C is between. In high regions it does not exceed 10 ° C. No snow in the country. The average annual rainfall ranges between 3100 and 6350 mm.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Marshes and forests occupy about a third of the country. North Caribbean coasts and the Pacific Ocean coasts are covered with tropical forests. Oak and pine trees are found in the forests. In the regions above the altitude of 2400 m, forests sparse and replaced with grasslands and pastures. A wooded area covers the eastern parts of the Nicoya peninsula.

The most common wild animals in the country include tapir, arrow hedgehog and crocodile.

Mines: The territory of the country is not rich in minerals. A small amount of gold is removed.

Population and Social Life

The population of the country is 3.161.000 and this population is made up of white-born Spanish whites, Negroes and Indians. In the country where population growth is high, a large part of the population is gathered in the metropolitan area. Only 34% of the people live in cities. The important settlements are San José, Alajuela, Heredia and Cartago.

The official language is Spanish and correspondence with English is maintained in some state affairs. The vast majority of the people are dependent on the Catholic sect of Christianity. There are also Jews and Protestants.

Education in the country is free. Primary education is compulsory between the ages of 6-12, and the number of illiterates is low. There are two universities in Costa Rica.

Political Life

The country is headed by the head of state. There are only 57 members in the country. There is an election for the Assembly every 4 years. Voting is compulsory.


Agriculture: Since Costa Rica’s economy is based on agriculture, 55% of the population is engaged in agriculture. For example, in Central, coffee, dairy products, sugar, beans and potatoes are obtained. Most produced coffee and bananas are exported to the outside. Livestock is developed and the herds of cattle are found in the Guanaceste region. It is the country that exports the most dairy products of Central America.

Industry: The industry is undeveloped in the country, and the small-scale industry includes sugar refineries, fertilizer plants, pesticides and consumables.

Trade: Costa Rica sells coffee, bananas and milk outdoors, and buys industrial products from the outside. In commercial relations, the country’s economy depends on the USA. Although the balance of external payments has given a deficit, the economy of the country is progressing rapidly compared to that of other Central American countries.

In addition, various places with natural beauties and artifacts from the Spanish civilization attract the tourists and become a good source of income for the country’s economy.

Transportation: Transportation, approximately 35.357 km of highways, is provided with 1500 km of railways connecting the two shores. Highways are inadequate and neglected. 15% is covered with asphalt. Puertolimon, Puontarenas, Golfito are the main ports. Juan Santa Maria near San José is the country’s only international airport.



The United States is a federal state consisting of 50 states on the North American continent. The US homeland neighbors are Canada in the north and Mexico in the south. The official establishment date is July 4, 1776.

United States of America; east of the Atlantic from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean is up to 4,500 km wide.

The United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, has a surface area of ??more than 9 million square kilometers. Alaska is northwest of Canada. Hawaii is located in the Pacific Ocean, 3,000 kilometers from the United States on the continent. Alaska is the largest in the 50 states. Located on the south side of the country is Texas second.


There are many different climates in the United States. Since the mountain ranges on the east and west coasts prevent the oceans from influencing the climate of the interior, the continental climate prevails in all over the country except those coastlines.

Since the middle parts are very high, there is not much temperature difference between the seasons. The Appalachian Mountains do not constitute an important obstacle. Although the central regions have low pressure in the summer season, the humid weather from the ocean is not obstructed by the Appalachians. On the western side, rainfall is less.

The southern part of the strip, which is coastal to the Atlantic Ocean, is relatively rainy and temperate, although the north is cooler and winters are very severe.

The tropical climate is dominated by the southern part of Mexico, which is open and flat. Here, summers are warm and winters are mild. There is plenty of rainfall in all seasons. Although the Alaska coastline has a climate affected by the sea, there are very severe temperatures in the interior.

Political Structure

Form of government: The United States is a federal association of 50 states. The center of the national government is the District of Colombia. The Constitution determines the outlines of the national government. Indicates its activities with the powers. Each state that has its own constitution and powers is responsible for other affairs. Each state; In terms of management, the city is divided into towns, towns and villages. Each state has its own elected governments.

Government: In the United States, the government is the people’s government; established by the people. Members of Congress, president, state officials, towns and cities are elected by the people. Judges are also directly elected by the public or appointed by the elected authorities. Public officials may be dismissed if they do not perform their duties well or violate the law severely.

The Constitution guarantees the rights and freedoms of persons. These rights and freedoms are stated in the first ten amendments to the constitution which were added to the constitution in 1791 and called the Human Rights Declaration.

The Constitution has divided the powers of the government into three: the legislature, which includes both sides of the congress, the executive, the Senate and the House of Representatives, and the judiciary, particularly the high court. The Constitution restricts the competence of each and prevents one to have more than one power.

In state governments, the system is almost identical to the federal government system.

In every state there is a governor at the head of the executive force. State governments look at jobs such as protection of order, education of children and young people, road construction. The federal government deals with issues of national and international concern and more than one state. Laws affecting the daily life of citizens are implemented by the police in cities and towns. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, known as the FBI; the criminals who cross the state borders investigate and follow those who violate federal law.

Federal Government: The President of the United States is elected for a four-year term by a general election. The selected President may be selected at the end of the term. The President is born in America and must have at least thirty-five years of age. It costs $ 200,000 a year, plus an additional $ 50,000 for costs; but they pay income tax on their sum. It also takes $ 100,000 for travel and non-taxable as guest hospitality.

If the President vetoes or refuses to sign a bill approved by Congress; A decision taken by two-thirds of the convention with two-thirds of the vote overrides this veto and the bill becomes law. President; appoints federal judges, ambassadors, hundreds of government officials. In the event of death, resignation or permanent injury of the President, the vice-chairman shall hold the position until the election.
A President who has not completed his term of office under the auspices of the United States Constitution may only be dismissed on the basis of sufficient evidence and with a two-thirds majority of the members in the House of Representatives, on the basis of sufficient evidence. To date, only one American President has been charged with abuse of office. He was acquitted in 1868 and was acquitted. In 1974, however, the election campaign was attended by a large number of high-ranking officials, including President Richard Nixon. In this incident, called Watergate, Nixon resigned before going to court and was replaced by Gerard Ford.

Congress, which is the legislative branch; It consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senators are elected for 6 years and the members of the House of Representatives are elected for two years. Senators and Representatives can be re-elected as long as they want to be a candidate.

Fifty states send two senators to Congress. One-third of the Senate is elected every two years. The candidate must be thirty years of age to become a senator and must have been an American citizen at least nine years before his election.

The House of Representatives has 435 members. Each state has a certain number of members according to its population. The states are divided into equally populated electoral districts, and voters of each region elect a delegate to Congress. A member must be at least twenty-five years old and at least seven years old.

A bill must be approved by both the Senate and the House of Representatives in order to become a law.

Foreign policy: Since the establishment of the country, he has been the main speaker in the management of foreign policy. However, their powers are not unlimited. The commitments it has made must be confirmed by the Congress.

The United States has also participated in regional defense groups such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization of the United States of America (OAS) and other organizations supporting peace and development.

Population and Ethnicity

The population of the United States consists of many different elements. According to the 2006 census, there are 32 groups with a population of 1 million or more. The majority (81%) of the population is white and of European origin. This is followed by Latin American descent with 13%. 13% of the population is black. Most of these come from people who were forcibly brought to Africa in the time of the colonies, but most of them have migrated from Africa and the Caribbean in recent years. 4% of the population is of Asian origin and 1% of them is Native American.

US-led territories:

Puerto Rico, an island of 9000 square kilometers in the Caribbean Sea, is connected to the United States. The population of the United States is 3.410.000. They choose their governors and legislative councils themselves.

The Virgin Islands in the sea of ??Karaipler were purchased in 1917 from Denmark. One hundred thousand inhabitants of the island are citizens of the United States of America and they choose the senate, the governors and the only legislative body. There are fifty small islands in the Virgin Islands that hold 346 square kilometers.

Panama; The Panama Canal District, which is an eight-kilometer-long landmark on both sides of the canal, was under American control from 1904 to 1978, according to treaties between the two countries. In 1978, the leaders of the two countries signed a new treaty, which gave 65% of the region the control of Panama in December 31, 1989 and the rest in 2000.

The United States’ responsibility for the defense and operation of the channel was transferred to Panama in history.

American schools in Turkey

Private American Robert College, Istanbul
Private Izmir American High School, Izmir
Private Tarsus American High School, Mersin
Uskudar American High School, Istanbul

Turkey and the United States, although touted as allies in the military field for decades because of NATO, Turkey has remained in effect in many areas of the United States. In addition, the two countries signed several bilateral agreements.

United States, has supported Turkey’s EU process and the vulnerability has been found in print in the EU. However, relations have received major injuries due to the United States’ Kurdish policy, allegedly secretly supporting the PKK, and finally invading Iraq.




Cuban natives; The first inhabitants of Cuba were Guanahatabey and Kiboni Indians who came to the island from South America. Taynolar (Antil Aravakları) settled in the island later became agriculturalists and a peaceful people who reached a certain level in making pots and tools. It was about 80-100 thousand.

The first permanent settlement in Cuba, where Christopher Columbus first explored (October 1492) in his first voyage (October 1492), was established in 1511. The oppression and exploitation of colonists, epidemics, hunger and immigration. century, the peace and order provided in the region along with the colony’s population has reached 50 thousand.At the beginning of the regular voyages from Spain increased the commercial and strategic importance of Havana. In order to close the labor shortage that emerged with the end of the slave trade in 1865, the Mexican Indians and the Chinese began to be brought to the island as a contracted laborer.

Since the end of the 19th century, Spain’s inability to provide the necessary labor, capital, machinery, technical skills, and markets for sugar production and exports led to a gradual weakening of its political and economic ties with Cuba. started to gain power in production and trade. The fact that the Spaniards did not compromise the demand for autonomy on the island and further increased the taxes caused the Ten Years War to start (1868 – 1878). In 1895, when the Cuban poet and journalist Jose Marti, in exile, brought together political organizations in exile, a war of independence, based on the guerrilla tactics, began. The United States of America, which is active in its economy, led to the war against Spain by using the sinking of the ship Maine ship anchored in Havana harbor.

The independence of Cuba, envisaged in the framework of the Paris Treaty signed after the end of the Spanish – American War (1898), entered into force on January 1, 1899 under the invasion of the United States. After receiving the right to have a say in Cuba’s internal and external relations and to establish a naval base at Guantanamo Bay, he withdrew his troops from the island. It has opened the way for a form of government based on social injustice. In particular, the actions of the Cuban clans of African descent for political rights and better job opportunities have been hardly suppressed. In 1933, Fulgencio Batista, who had overthrown Gerardo Machado with the support of the United States in 1933, left his mark on the Cuban leadership for many years as the most famous dictator. In addition, the rise in the unemployment rate, the fact that the vast majority of the population remained in poverty, and the economy was increasingly exogenous led to an effective opposition to the Batista administration.

Fidel Castro, who led one of the groups targeting the dictatorship in the 1950s, was imprisoned for a period due to a failed raid on the Moncada Barracks (1953). Castro in Mexico in 1955 after the 26th July Movement launched in Argentina, the organization, including the revolutionary revolutionary Che Guevara in December 1956 in Cuba, the guerrilla movement launched in Cuba in time, taking support from other groups Batista’ya troops are important After the dictator Fulgencio Batista left Cuba on January 1, 1959, a new leadership began in Havana with a force of a thousand people under Castro. (Cuban Revolution)
Fidel Castro, who gained the support of a large part of the government as a result of deep-rooted land reform, gained weight with the alliance he established with the Cuban Socialist People’s Party. Decapitation accelerated Castro’s close relationship with the USSR and turned towards a socialist line. In the 1960s, the increasing military spending due to the pressure of the United States led to shock in the economy. At the same time, Cuba was pushed to diplomatic loneliness because of its support for the revolutionary movements in Latin America. I.

In the 1970s, the party and the state were stabilized in the economy with the improvement in the economy. In the meantime, Castro’s leadership in the administration was strengthened. sending unresponsive to the invasion of Afghanistan by the USSR, an unconnected country, caused some reactions in the Third World. The fact that the United States of America and the United States of America intervened in Grenada between the 120,000 Cubans who migrated to Cuba after the permission of the Cuban regime to travel to the United States in 1980 made the relations between the two countries even more tense. The wave of change surrounding it did not affect Cuba politically.

Cuba was driven to an economic impasse due to the help of the Soviet aid cut after the Cold War, and turned to tourism investments, and limited private investments were allowed. In this period, a limited improvement was observed in relations with the United States. In July 2006, Fidel Castro temporarily handed over his presidential duties to his brother, Raul Castro.


Cuban culture in terms of Spanish and African influence in terms of the historical traces of the United States due to historical ties with the North American sports are popular among the public. Baseball, including basketball, volleyball, athletics and boxing in Cuba, widely played and successful in international competitions sports

Cuban cuisine; It is a mixture of spanish and caribbean in general. The meat, seafood, corn and black beans are consumed a lot.

Cuban literature has a rich and qualified heritage especially in the field of poetry. century poet Jose Marti and Nicolás Guillén who lived in the 20th century is one of the important Cuban literati. The famous song Guantanamera is the work of the revolutionary hero of Cuba, Jose Marti. The song is Nicholas Guillen’s.

Managerial Conditions

Cuba has a socialist state structure based on one-party sovereignty. The weight of the Cuban Communist Party (PCC) in state administration has been clearly stated in the 1976 Constitution. The government uses the National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional de Poder Popular).


It is located at the beginning of the Crab Cycle and at the entrance of the Gulf of Mexico. It covers more than 3,715 islands and islands, as well as the main island with the same name. The nearest neighbor, Haiti, 77, Bahamas 140, Jamaica 146, United States 180, Mexico 210 and Cayman Islands 240 km away. The second largest island of the country is the island of Juventud The highest point is Turquino Peak (2005 m) .Total land area is 110,861 km². Annual average temperature is 26 C. It has a semi-tropical climate determined by two seasons. Hurricanes between September and October sometimes cause great destruction. The total length of the coasts is 3735 km and there is a 29 km land border with the United States naval base at Guantanamo Bay.


Cuba is a very complex population of the past centuries, different ethnic communities settled in the island in the past centuries.In the pre-colombian period between 80-100 thousand island natives, today, only a few families living on the east end of the island remains. European and African people, 37%, whites, 11% of blacks and 1% of Chinese people. Chinese population in the 19th century, brought to the island for the railway and mining jobs are the grandchildren of China. Birth rate is 11.6 / 1000 .

Population: 11,382,820 (July 2006 data)
Population growth rate: 0.31% (2006 data)
Birth rate 11.6 births / 1000 people (2006 data)
Death rate 7.22 deaths / 1,000 people (2006 data)
Refugee rate: – 1.57 refugees / 1,000 inhabitants (2006 estimates)
Infant mortality rate: 6.22 deaths / 1,000 born infants (2006 estimate)
Life expectancy: Total population: 77.41 years
In males: 75.11 years
Women: 79.85 years (2006 data)
Average number of children: 1.66 children / 1 woman (2006 estimate)
Number of adults infected with HIV / AIDS: 0.10% (2003 data)
Number of HIV / AIDS – deaths: less than 200 (2003 data)
Nation: Cuban

Cuban economy is largely a state-controlled planned economy based on socialist principles. Although private sector investments have increased in the recent years, most of the production vehicles are operated by the state. In 1992, 80% of foreign trade was realized and the subsidies for agricultural production were subsidized. The US embargo was softened after the depressive period. However, after Soviet aid disappeared and trade relations deteriorated, the economy had deteriorated for a while, and then it moved from agriculture to industry. In the agricultural sector, where 21% of the workforce is employed, sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee and rice are important production and export items. Fishing and animal husbandry, which are particularly important in socialist regime, is one of the major production items. Thanks to the tourists coming from Turkey, tourism has become the driving force of the Cuban economy. China, Canada, Spain and the Netherlands are the biggest foreign trade partners of Cuba. The basis of trade is the nickel which has a significant share in the export items (6.4% of the world production) The GNP per capita is about $ 3,500 and the standard of living is still not brought to the level before 1990. The biggest supporter of petroleum is China.




Egypt is one of the richest countries in the world. Egypt has been the cradle of many civilizations throughout history. According to the results from the archaeological excavations, the first known date of BC. It starts with the Kingdoms of Lower and Upper Egypt, founded in 5000 BC. The oldest of them is the Pharaoh period.

The pyramids, which remain as secrets to date and the first among the seven wonders of the world, were built in their time. The secrets such as the transportation of giant stone blocks which are used in the construction of the pyramids and some of them can reach up to 15 tons, and that their calculations are appropriate for the number of Pir pi ulaşabil and the most remote places are not solved. In addition, the sphinxes, which are a separate enigma of their formations and which take various animal shapes with the effect of the winds, are attracting their astonishment. This is followed by the Menes Dynasty and the Persian domination. Dara, the last of the Persians, the Kyaniyan king; When he was defeated in Erbil, Egypt passed into Alexander the son of Macedonian King Philip. He set up Alexandria. His morals are broken with his victories. In the end, he died of anger and misery. After that, Egypt remained under Roman and Byzantine rule until 640.

At that time, Hazret-i Ömer sent an army from the Eshab-i rent to the conquest of Egypt under the command of Amr ibn as. Egypt was conquered and the garrison of El-Fustat (Old Cairo) was founded. All the people of Egypt were honored by these dates.

In the time of the Caliph al-Muawiyah, Arabic became the language of the people. Egypt, which was brought together with religion and language, experienced a golden revolution in the period of Abbasids in terms of prosperity and peace. After the Abbasids until 1171 Fatimid remained in the hands. At that time, Saladin was conquered by Ayyubi. After the Ayyubids, Egypt was ruled by the Mamluk Sultans of Turkish origin until the 16th century. Innovations were made in the administrative, military, economic and many other fields in the time of the Mamluks. Egyptian traders have taken over the Chinese-European trade, taking advantage of the country’s strategic and economic position.

At the same time, the Ottoman Empire was experiencing the rise period. Sultan Yavuz Sultan Selim Han, 1516’da Egypt Expedition. He first defeated the Mamluks in the Mercidabık plain. He spent the desert of Sinai 13 days without any casualties. Then he defeated the Mamelukes in Ridaniye and added Egypt to the Ottoman lands. Thus, the Ottoman Empire had land on three major continents and served to spread and strengthen Islam here.

In 1798, the French Emperor Napoleon Bonoparte invaded Egypt in order to close the path of India to India. However, he was defeated by Cezzar Ahmed Pasha in Akka Castle. The French then retreated. Meanwhile, Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha was sent to Egypt for help. The French were defeated and withdrew in 1801. Mehmed Ali Pasha stayed in Egypt and became governor. He brought technical equipment and specialist personnel from Western countries. He opened many madrasahs and schools and became the most powerful leader of Egypt. He sent the Egyptian navy for help in the Ottoman-Greek War of 1827. It also opened channels for the development of agriculture and enriched the Egyptian economy. Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha was a good man of his religion. After that, Egypt broke down. He was succeeded by Ibrahim Pasha, his eldest son and governor of Jeddah. İbrahim Pasha, by order of Sultan Mahmud Khan, waged war with the Wahhabis and took the cities of Derıniyye. Then he suppressed the Mora Rebellion. In the meantime, Sultan Mahmud II rebelled against Khan and came to Kütahya. Syria, Adana and Egypt were given to him. He received the title of “Khedive” (Khedive), who was an independent governor. The second time he rebelled against Britain and Syria was again in the Ottomans. After his death in 1848, the first Abbas, then in 1854, Saeed Pasha, son of Ibrahim Pasha was the Khedive. Said Pasha built the Suez Canal and Port Said. After his death, his brother İsmail Pasha became the Khedive. When this was dismissed in 1879, he was succeeded by his son Tevfik Pasha. The British were involved in the Egyptian administration at the time.

In these years, the members of the Cairo Masonic Lodge, of which Cemaleddin-i Efgani was headed, were operating in cooperation with the British. Introduced as a man of religion, Abduh was among them. Egypt, which was weakened economically and militarily, was thus occupied by the British in 1882.

The British, along with the famous spy captain Lavrens, began to divide the locals into Egypt, Jordan, Iraq and Saudi Arabia. The uncoordinated and indecisive policies of the Unionists failed to prevent these developments and caused these countries to gradually leave the Ottoman Empire. Thus, after Egyptian Tevfik Pasha, Abbas Hilmi Pasha, Hüseyin Kamil Pasha and Ahmed Fuad Pashas took the control. Fuad Pasha left the Ottomans and took the name of Melik. Upon his death in 1936, his son Faruk became a melike. During the Second World War, German and Italian troops attacked Egypt. Egypt did not participate in the war until 1945. At that time, he declared war on Japan and Germany. In the same year, he gained independence and became a member of the UN.

Internal rebellions, foreign debts, channel problems and various warfare brought heavy burdens to Egypt. That is why the military revolution in 1952 and Melik Faruk was taken abroad. The following year the republic was declared and the general Necib became the President. In 1956, Sudan left Egypt. The military revolution was made by young officers. Cemal Abduh Nasır was among the most powerful in the army. Two years later, when Nebib wanted to put an end to the military administration, Nasser, who already had different ideas, arrested Najib and seized Egypt.

Nasır brought socialism to Egypt with his policy. He broke Egypt from the western world and dropped it into the arms of Russia. Russian military and technical support opened its doors. About 60 thousand Muslims were brought to the dungeons for various reasons. Nationalized many organizations. He infiltrated his toxic ideas into other Arab countries. Between 1958 and 1961, Syria was in the process of reunification with Syria. Meanwhile, disagreements began with Israel. Egypt-Israel relations became tense. When Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, Britain, France and Israel attacked Egypt, but the US and Russia warned against the attack. UN power was installed in the Israeli border and the Gulf of Aqaba. In 1967, Nasir had these forces back. He shut the canal off Israeli ships. Israel then attacked Egypt and destroyed the Egyptian Air Force. After six days of war, Israel occupied the Sinai region.

When Nasir died in 1970, he was replaced by Anwar Sadat. Egypt attacked Israel in 1973. At the end of the 1975 and 1977 negotiations, the Camp David summit took place. According to this, while Israel withdrew from Sinai, Egypt agreed to open the Channel to Israeli ships.

During Sadat, Egypt was separated from Russian influence and socialism. He made peace with Israel and approached the United States. Unlike Nasser’s policy, Egypt brought it into a liberal and free world system, but its leadership in the Arab world was shaken and its military support weakened. Finally, on 6 January 1981, Sadat was killed as a result of an assassination. Instead of former Air Force Commander Hosni Mubarak became president. In January 1991, Hosni Mubarak, alongside the allied forces in the Gulf operation, has resorted to various remedies to get rid of foreign debts.

Physical Structure

Northeast Africa is located in northeastern Africa and connected to the Sinai Peninsula and Asia. Egypt, which is in the shape of a square in the shape of the sea, south and west of the sea, is located between 23 ° north and 31 ° north latitudes and between 25 ° east and 35 ° east longitude. It has a key position in Asia, Europe and Africa due to its strategic position.

The Nile River, the lifeblood of Africa and Egypt, divides the country into four regions: the Nile River basin, the Sinai Peninsula, the East (Arab) Desert, and the regions of the western and southern deserts.

The Nile River is 6390 km long, with the beginning of Lake Victoria. If the source of the Kagera River pouring into this lake is accepted as the beginning, it will be 6671 km. According to this, it is the longest one among the rivers of the world, regardless of their arms. Once connected with the Nile, Bahrelgazal and Blue Nile, it enters into Egyptian lands with 250 m. It crosses the whole of Egypt and separates arms in Cairo and reaches the Mediterranean by making a large delta. The length of the Nile River, which is 500 km long and 500 km long after reaching Nasser Lake, is around 2 km. Here one is divided into two main branches, another to the Suez Canal. The delta between the two large branches of the Nile River, Reşit and Damietta, which can reach 23 km in some places, is 23 km. It is 250 km long and 160 km long. As if Egypt is in this region. With the green and fertile watershed of the Nile, the lifeblood of Egypt, Nil, and the green and fertile watershed of the region, left the vast lands of 1.001.449 km2, the majority of which were formed by the yellow desert, and squeezed Egypt to 36,000 km2.

The west and south deserts, which are the continuation of the Libyan Desert and the extension of the Greater Sahara of 10,000,000 km2, are three quarters of the country. The average height of the surface area of ??673.000 km2 of desert plateau is 250 m, except for the rocky rugged terrain at an altitude of 2000 meters in the south west. East (Arab) Lake on the coast of the Red Sea is relatively mountainous, the highest reaches 2100 m, in the north the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea in the south, the Suez Canal in the West and the Gaza Strip in the east, the Gaza Strip in the east, the Gulf of Israel and the south The Sinai Peninsula is a plateau covered with sharp hills such as the East Lake region. These high terrains are full of many straits and passages that make up the Asian-African connections.Mount Sinai, which is the highest peak of Egypt, is 2641 m and Mount El Thbet is 2439 m.

The Mediterranean coasts of Egypt, which are about 1000 m long, are generally erect and unsealed. The delta mouth formed by the Nile River is partially flat. The shores of the Red Sea are 1800 km. Some places are low and sandy and some places are quite high. Current coral reefs are unacceptable. With the Suez Canal opened in 1869, the Mediterranean and the Red Sea were united and the sea route to India was shortened.


Egypt has a warm and dry climate. Two seasons prevail, summer and winter. The winter months are not hard, but rather soft. On the Mediterranean coast, rainfall is about 200 mm. In the southern regions, the summer days can reach up to 43 ° C and the temperature drops to around 15 ° C in winter. Egypt’s temperature difference between day and night is high. For example, the temperature in the desert region at 37 ° C during the day, can be as low as 15 ° C at night. In addition to the north winds affecting the country, the ortaya hamsin ve wind that emerged in April and May causes sandstorms. This scorching wind runs eastward from the western and southern deserts of the Western Sahara, which covers 80% of the country.

Natural Resources

The arid and warm climate of Egypt prevented the existence of forest areas and the enrichment of vegetation. The coastal areas, lakes and basins in the deserts of the desert and the greenery around the wells are lush and fertile. In other regions it is mostly yellow desert. Deserts generally have arid vegetation. Nile waters, the only source of life in the country, constitute the most important natural resource. The Nile River waters are taken under control, and therefore, only three crops are purchased per year from the fertile delta of the Nile Valley, which constitutes only 1 / 28th of the country. The lake of Assuan sun kmi, south of Nile waters, is 3000 km, the surface area is 5000 km2 and the deepest place is 70 m.

As in vegetation, animals are more mediocre in Egypt than in domestic animals. In the desert regions, the inhabitants generally live gazelles, nubian goats, hyenas, jackals, desert foxes, hares and lynxes. There are also many species of birds and wild ducks. If the plateaus in the areas of rough sting and ostrich live. The waters of the Nile are rich in freshwater bass.

The most important underground source is petroleum. The western and eastern deserts, the Suez Bay and the Sinai Peninsula are rich in oil. Iron ore, phosphate, limestone and salt are other important natural resources.

Population and Social Life

The bridge between Africa and Asia and Europe and Egypt, which is a transit hub between India and the Far East, has been the scene of many invasions throughout history. Her strategic position has made her a major influence in such large matters as the African Union, the Arab Nationalism and the Islamic World. The geography of the country has caused 99% of the Egyptians to live in a narrow basin due to the fusion of many different nations.

Egypt, with a population of 55.979.000, is the most populous country in Africa after Nigeria. Despite the lack of industrialization, the population density in the Nile Valley is almost double that of the densely populated Western European nations. The vast majority of the population consists of whites of Hami descent. There are also Coptic and Nubian people. 99% of the population is Muslim. Arabic is the main language of the people. The Arabic that the fellahs (peasants) live in the villages alone are slightly different from those spoken in the cities. They are also widely spoken in English and French.

People can be divided into five groups in terms of life style. In Egypt, among the developing countries, there are differences between the fellahs (peasants) that constitute the majority of the population, the living and the commercial classes, which are usually living in cities, as well as in the language of life. The administrative level, which generally knows Turkish, is mostly Arabs, North Africans, Turks and British. In addition, today, the Bedouins, who live in the oases with the remaining land owners, have lost their political power. The Egyptian leaders in recent years have increased the number of schools, students, teachers and experts especially after 1952 because they believe that many economic and political problems can be solved through education and training. Only primary education is compulsory, others are optional and free. There are 7 universities other than foreign schools. The most famous are the Al-Azhar University. 50% of the population is literate.

Cairo, the largest city in the African continent, is the cultural center of the Arab world. This city, which was founded in 969 by Arabs, is a modern tourism center with plenty of old and historical artifacts. One of the seven wonders of the world, Alexandria Lighthouse is located in Alexandria, the temple of Abu-Simbel Assuan and the world’s largest sphinx with the three largest pyramids in Giza, other important big cities are. The sphinx named yüksek Horus uzun next to the pyramid of Kefren from the three pyramids in Giza is 73 m long and 20 m high.

Egypt Turkish works of art: Egypt has remained under Turkish influence from the year 826 until the late Ottomans. Many works were built in Egyptian style in Egypt, which was started to be governed by Turkish governors from the time of the Abbasids. The tombs of the Abbasid caliphs in Cairo are beautiful examples of Turkish architecture. Ahmad bin Tulun, one of the Abbasid Governors, built the Ibn-i Tulun Mosque, which still stands today. The fact that this mosque is made of bricks and that the building is like a castle is clearly showing the effects of Turkestan and Samarra in its architectural style. As in Uighur structures, motifs are large and simple.

At the times of Ayyubids, darülhadis, tekke and iwaned madrasahs were built in Turkestan style.

During the Mameluke period, the Turkish ruler, women and gentlemen had built many mosques, complexes, madrasas, lounges, tombs and inns in Turkish architectural style. Today, most of them stand as the Mamluk art monuments.

After the conquest of Egypt by Yavuz Sultan Selim, the architectural style of the Mameluke was forgotten and the Ottoman architectural style was settled in Egypt. Masjids, fountains and monopolies built by the governors during the Ottoman period were built in Ottoman architectural style. Examples include the Suleymaniye Mosque, the Mahmudiye Mosque, the Murad Pasha Mosque, the Mehmed Ali Mosque, the Kethüda Abdurrahman Sabil, and the Ottoman ones. Ottoman mosques in Egypt is the largest domes and minarets fine classical Ottoman monuments, tiles were brought from Turkey.

Political Life

The Republic of Egypt, which is based on the presidential system, is divided into 25 administrative regions (provinces). The president, who is considered the strongest leader, is elected by the public every six years. He establishes the government and conducts the presidency. He also has a vice president who will help him. The remaining 392 members of the assembly, whose ten members are elected by the president, are elected by the people for five years. Egyptian provinces are governed by the olup provincial council edil, which consists of representatives of the governors and the governors.

The military coup in Egypt in 1952 overturned Melik Farouk and the transfer of a new political system began.

During Sadat period, a policy towards more peaceful and economic development was followed. The result was peace with Israel through the US-sponsored Camp David Peace Treaty. Economic development was also carried out and nuclear power plants were built. Hosni Mubarak, who replaced him after Anwar Sadat, did not make any changes to the Sedat model, which is a life of liberal economy, private enterprise, freedom of press and multi-party democracy.


Egypt is the richest country in Africa in terms of per capita income. But it is among the countries of the world. Before 1980, Egypt was among the ten worst countries in the world. After the Camp David Agreement, Enver was one of the fastest developing countries in the world with 10% development speed with Sadat’s new economic measures.

Egypt was a rather poor and unstable country before the regulation of irrigation systems. After that, the Nile waters were taken under control with the canals opened and the irrigation systems built. Thus, the amount of products that can only be taken once a year is tripled. The Nile Valley and the delta are suitable for agriculture. The most important of the water control systems such as dams and irrigation systems which cause the increase of arable areas is the Great Assuan Dam. The construction of this dam was planned by Kavalali Mehmed Ali Pasha and was completed in 1902 due to various reasons. Lastly, the dam, which was upgraded in 1934, was 4 km long and 110 meters high, making a new land area of ??500,000 hectares available for cultivation. Immediately to the south of the dam is Nasser Lake, 554 km long and 5000 km2.

Thus, 10 billion KW of electricity can be generated from dams with twelve turbines annually. The dam with a volume of 130 billion cubic meters of water has caused a three-fold increase in agricultural products over the last two decades.

In the vicinity of the dam, in the Nile valley and delta and in the coastal regions more cotton, beans, corn, wheat, sugarcane, oil, rice, onions, potatoes, vegetables and fruits are grown.

Egypt is rich in minerals. Petroleum, manganese, zinc, iron, lead, phosphate, chromium, gold, asbestos, sulfur, tungsten and titan are the most important minerals. In addition, limestone, salt, basalt and pink marble are quite abundant.

The most important export products; Cotton, rice, petroleum, natural gas, phosphate, salt, iron, manganese, cigarettes, post and leather. On the other hand, it buys wheat, machinery, technical equipment, war weapon, tools and equipment.

The Egyptian economy is based on industry and tourism other than agriculture. Textile, chemical products, petro-chemistry and cement are the major industries. The current old and historical artifacts attract attention of tourists in every season with its suitable climate and coast. The pyramids and the lighthouse of Alexandria, royal tombs and sphinxes are the major tourist income sources. Besides, Egypt has the traces of many nations with its long and varied history. Especially the Umayyads, Abbasids, Mamluks and mosques and madrasahs dating from the Ottomans, inn and caravanserais are important historical places.

One of Egypt’s other major sources of income is the existing oil wells in the Suez Canal and the Sinai Peninsula.

The Suez Canal was present since the time of the Pharaohs. B.C. In the year 600, the Nile and the Red Sea were united. Later, it was filled with sand. In the times of Yavuz Sultan Selim Khan, Second Selim Khan and Third Khan, attempts were made to channel and finally the canal was excavated in 1859 by the use of more than 50,000 workers in the time of Hajj Said Said. It was put into service in 1869, and three years later its bills were sold to England, but it was nationalized in 1956. The channel has a width of 150 m, a depth of 14 m and a length of 172 km and meets more than half of the Egyptian trade balance. Although the 1967 Israeli War led to the loss of these revenues, it again began to contribute to the pace of economic development after Enver Sadat’s realization of the Camp David Treaty.

Transportation: There is an adequate transportation network between settlements in Egypt. Railways up to 5335 km are operated by the state. The length of the roads has reached 32,241 km. 52% of these roads are covered with asphalt.

Most of the railways and highways are located along the Nile Basin, where the settlement is densely populated.




The first information about Madagascar is derived from Arabian sources, especially in the middle of the 10th century, from El-Mesudi, who visited East Africa. The island has been populated by Indonesians and Africans since our age. In the twelfth century, the Arabs established a small town on the northwest coast. Over time, Islam spread to the island. The island of Gaskar was not known by the Europeans until it was discovered accidentally by a Portuguese in 1500. In 1643 the French established Dauphin Castle on the island, which was then divided into small kingdoms. The Sakalava Kingdoms, which were at the height of the eighteenth century, were replaced by Merina Kingdom at the end of the same century. This kingdom, by signing a friendship agreement with England, opened its door to the Europeans. Meanwhile, the French occupied Nassi Bey in 1841 and wanted to take the Beard in the forefront. France bombed the Sakalava coast, which did not accept its patronage. In 1885, under the authority of a French executive who was the president of his foreign affairs, a kind of state protection was established. In 1896, the French parliament turned Malagasy into a colony. After the Second World War, the Madagasians took up a tough struggle for independence. In 1947, the revolution broke out, and after a brief intervention, the rebellion was suppressed. Between 60,000 and 90,000 people were killed or wounded. The island was then managed directly from Paris. In 1958, Madagascar became a republic in the French League. On June 26, 1960, he gained full independence. After an independence of 10 years, there are still 50,000 French soldiers in the country. Two-thirds of the foreign investments were in the hands of French import-export companies, three-quarters of exports, and more than half of the commercial value plants. In the south, which was dry and poor, in the early 1972, 100,000 students boycotted the end of foreign economic domination. The boycott was digested but, in May 1972, when the city was in a new state of confusion; the government, the military commander left. A temporary government was established between 1972-1975. On 30 December 1975 a second republic was declared. The name of the new state was the Democratic Republic of Madagascar. The new republic followed a broad nationalization policy. French troops were removed. A state of emergency was declared in July because of the internal turmoil that began in early 1991, and after a while the government established by the socialists resigned. After a while, the Council and the High Revolution Council were annulled and Zafy was headed by the High Government Organization. The first round of presidential elections was held on 25 November 1992. The second round was postponed to 1993 due to the election of cheating.

Physical Structure

Madagascar, the fourth largest island in the world, is 1570 km long from north to south with a maximum width of 575 kilometers. The coast line, which is more than about 4800 km, and the change of its geographical structure with the mountain chain extending along its entire length is remarkable. The island is divided into three natural areas of the geography: the mountainous inner region, the east coast and the west coast.

The mountainous inner region, named as the high plateaus, has an altitude of 900 to 1500 m above sea level and contains three mountain ranges with a height of more than 1830 m. The highest peak is Maromokotro (2876 m), on the northern Tsratanna mountain range. The surfaces of the plateaus have different characteristics. In all directions there are deep valleys and deep valleys. In the high mountains of the mountainous region, there are large low pressure areas and marshy plains.

The east coast, which has an average of 50 km, is located between the high plateaus and the Indian Ocean. It is characterized by erosion hills and marshes. The coastline, which contains the Antongil Bay as a single indentation, is parallel to the main axis of the mountains. The rivers pouring from this shore into the Indian Ocean are short but suitable for short distances.

The western coast, which has reached a width of 190 km in some places, has a more variable, more indented, protruding appearance compared to the east coast with its plains depressions and plateaus. This is the most important geographical feature of Madagascar. The rivers poured into the Mozambique Channel are longer and have large sections.


Climate changes on the island depend on altitude differences rather than latitude differences. The climate is generally hot and humid. The mountainous interior is mild.

There are two seasons in Madagascar: hot (rainy) season and cold (dry) season. It is the period of hot season, daily rains and storms. This season, high plateaus, from the end of November until the end of April continues. The longer the east coast, the shorter the west coast. It takes only two months in the south (range and quarry). The cold season continues from April to November. During this season, the east coast and north west are rainy and high plateaus are humid. The west coast is arid, the southern coast is even more dry. Annual average annual precipitation varies by region. The rainfall on the coast of Antongil, with an area of ??3700 mm, is 2100 millimeters on the northwest coast, 940 millimeters in the west and 355 kilometers in the southwest. This amount varies between 1200-1325 mm in the inner plateau. The average annual temperature is 21 ° C-27 ° C on the coast and 13 ° -19 ° C on the inner plateau. The coldest month is July.

Natural Resources

Once upon a time, the intersection forests covering Madagascar can be found only on the coastline and on the slopes of the central mountain range. Natural vegetation is destroyed by cutting or cutting to open the field. The most dense forests are located in the Ankaizina plateau, in the Tsratanna mountain range and in the Sahamalaza Bay in the northwest. Forests include dark red and fragrant trees and precious trees such as iron trees. In the south, there are frequently spiny shrubs (giant herbs that are involved in cactus and scrub trees). Island animals have a unique feature. Except for the significant crocodiles, there are no large animals such as elephants, monkeys or lions. However, only animals found in Madagascar and resembling monkeys are abundant. Mammals, bats, wild boars, and other mammals are also found. Madagascar contains chrome, mica, graphite and secondary gemstones as underground riches. In 1980, large oil reserves were found. Oil is not currently available.

Population and Social Life

The majority of the people of Madagascar (84%) with a population of 12,804,000 live in rural areas and live in farming. Antananarivo, which has a population of approximately 663,000 and is the only major city in the region, is in the high plateau area. Population growth rate is around 2.6%.

Before and after the French occupation, ethnic groups, which were tightly tied to each other for trade, internal migration and administrative structure, were dispersed. The Merina tribe, which is the most populated and influential group of the people of Madagascar, lives in the middle of the mountainous areas. There are also ethnic groups such as Bertsileo, Sakalava, Mahafaly, Antaimoro and Antaisaka. There are also European, Chinese and Indian minorities in Madagascar. The official language is Madagascar and French. Until the twentieth century, education remained in the hands of missionaries. Today, approximately 50% of the people are literate. Higher education is carried out at Madagascar University and scientific research institutes. About one third of the population of Madagascar is a Christian. Christianity was spread in the country by the missionaries in the nineteenth century. There are several hundred thousand Muslims in Madagascar, especially in the northwest. Most of the people in the countryside continue their old religions.

Political Life

In the Democratic Republic of Madagascar announced on 30 December 1975, the President is elected for seven years. The President presides over the 12-member Revolutionary Council. The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President. There is only one party in the country where the National People’s Assembly has been in office for six years. Madagascar is a member of the United Nations and the African Union.


Until recently, the economy of Madagascar was under the control of French economic institutions. Today, with an accelerated nationalization policy, the government has nationalized 35% of the industry, 78% of exports, 60% of imports, and banking and insurance.

In the economy, priority is given to agriculture where more than 80% of the population is engaged. Agricultural products such as tobacco, vanilla, tea, cloves, peppers and coffee grown in the country are exported. Rice, the main foodstuff of the people, is grown, but for the people of the city, more than 100,000 tons of rice is imported annually. 10 million cattle raised in Madagascar allow the country to export frozen meat. Agricultural products provide 30% of export revenues. Chrome, mica, graphite and second-order precious stones are exported. Madagascar is expected to become an oil exporting country thanks to the large oil reserves discovered in recent years. Although most of the finished goods are imported, the trade balance shifts in favor of the country due to a strict import policy. Inflation is around 8%.

The transportation area is a major obstacle to social and economic development. The length and maintenance of roads are insufficient. Colonial era railways have not been developed. In response to these deficiencies, airway transportation is being developed. Ivanto airport near the city center is the only international airport in the country.